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Unformatted text preview: bility Locking / Unlocking Mechanism of Knee – – An involuntary, passive rotation that occurs when moving in and out of final stages of full extension – Brings femur and tibia into closed­pack situation – Closed chain Posterior gliding, anterior rolling Medial rotation of femur on tibia (these two positions “screw the knee” Return: must “unscrew the knee” – Lateral rotation of femur on tibia – Anterior gliding, posterior rolling – Open chain Lateral rotation of the tibia on femur Return: medial rotation of tibia on femur Rotation ­ – Full extension = closed­pack Rotation at the Knee Rotation Muscles of the Knee Complex Muscles Knee Flexors – Hamstrings Biceps Femoris Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Knee Extensors – Quadriceps Group Vastus Lateralis Vastus Intermedius Vastus Medialis Rectus Femoris Knee Flexors Biceps Femoris (Long Head) Lateral View (Short Head) Semitendinosis Semimembranosis Semitendinosis Dorsal View Knee Extensors Extensors Patella as an Anatomical Pulley Patella The patella increases the mechanical efficiency of the quadriceps – increases the distance of the quadriceps tendon and the patellar tendon from the axis of the knee joint Greatest torque from the quadriceps is produced at 45 to 60 degrees of flexion The Ankle/Foot Complex The Complexity of the Ankle / Foot Complex Complexity Stability Demands – providing a stable base of support without undue muscular activity – act as a rigid lever for effective push off during gait Mobility Demands – reducing impact of rotation of proximal joints – flexible enough to absorb shock of body weight as foot hits ground – allows the foot to conform to a variety of terrain & activities! Anatomical Review Anatomical Talus Navicular Calcaneous Cuboid Talus Navicular Cuneiforms Bones of the Ankle and Foot Ankle Articulations of the Ankle Articulations Talocrural joint – articulation between the talus and distal tibia (tibiotalar surface) – articulation between the talus and fibula (talofibular surface) Tibia Talus Fibula Articulations of the Ankle Mortise – formed by structures of distal tibia and malleoli Plantar Arches Plantar The bony and ligamentous structure of the transverse tarsal joint and the transverse metatarsal joints combine to produce a structural vault. – Functions as a shock absorber and to conform to surfaces Arches of the Foot Foot Motions of the Ankle/Foot (Talocrural Joint) (Talocrural Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion Motions of the Ankle/Foot (Subtalar Joint) (Subtalar Muscles of the Ankle / Foot Muscles Plantarflexors – Gastrocnemius, Soleus Dorsiflexors – Tibialis Anterior, Extensor Hallucis Longus, Extensor Digitorum Longus, Peroneus Tertius Pronators – Extensor Digitorum Longus, Peroneus Longus, Peroneus Brevis, Peroneus Tertius Supinators – Anterior Tibialis, Posterior Tibialis Plantar Flexors Plantar Gastrocnemeus Soleus Dorsiflexors Dorsiflexors Tibialis Anterior Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Digitorum Longus Peroneus Tertius Pronators Pronators Extensor Digitorum Longus Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Supinators Supinators Tibialis Anterior Tibialis Posterior Summary: LE Motions and Muscles** Summary: Motions Muscles Hip Flexion Quadriceps Hip Extension Hamstrings and Gluteus Maximus Hip ABduction Hip ABductors Hip ADDuction Hip ADDuctors Hip Internal Rotation Hip ADDuctors and Gluteus Minimus Hip External Rotation Knee Flexion Hip External Rotators and Gluteus Maximus Hamstrings Knee Extension Quadriceps Ankle Plantar Flexion Plantar Flexors Ankle Dorsiflexion Dorsiflexors Ankle Pronation Pronators Ankle Supination Supinators **that you need to know!...
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This document was uploaded on 09/30/2013.

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