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POLS1000 – Lecture Feb 4 2013 (Socialism)►CONSERVATIVE THOUGHTA need to reproduce hierarchical universe will force conservatives to give absolute priorityto “natural institutions of society” (e.g. church, family, monarchy) - “natural” because it seems like it has been always existed, and instill traditional valuesIndividuals in this context must revere and respect these institutions that withheld the test of times. These “natural institutions” are fundamental for us because they give us meaning. It is through these institutions that we acquire meaningof our lives and understand our place in the universe. (e.g. Father, the head of family/ King, head of the nation)The role of state or government is to ensure that peace and orderthat is necessary for these institutions to continue to exist. Government can be the agent to change and can bring progress. They are there to protect and promote these natural institutions. Peace, order, stability are roles of government in conservative thought. In order to conserve these natural institutions, conservatives must have the recourse to the law and education. ►SOCIALIST THOUGHTSocialism is direct consequence of expansion of liberalism in the19thcentury. Bourgeoisiesis social force behind liberalism, proletariatsare behind force to socialism, and for conservatives, aristocrats and nobles. The term, socialism, appeared in November 1833 by Pierre Leroux – French philosopher. In 1841, a British thinker Robert Owen published “What is socialism?” Robert Owen was an industrialist; he is a utopian thinker. The term, socialism, became popular. Good part of what people were thinking about in 19thcentury is socialist doctrine. During this time, socialism will come to designate theoretical and political stance that oppose liberal thought – called, “possessive individualism.” Possessive individualism: a liberal thought that says individuals, who are qualified by the property ownership, are centre of the world. Socialism will refuse capitalistic principles, and the idea that private property is the motor of economic activity. Because socialism is born in changes of liberalism, socialism itself will resemble liberalism. Socialism will not deny the fundamental principles of liberalism (e.g. role of reason). Socialism seeks to surpass liberal ideas, seeks to push liberal ideas and principles to the extreme limit of their internal logic. Socialism radicalizes the principles of liberalism. Exam Question:Compare and contrast the role of reason in liberalism, conservatism and socialism. Liberals argue that we are all born free and equal by nature because we all have equal access to reason. Socialists agree with this idea, but they think that this principle must entail an equality ofoutcome. Socialists think that if we were born equal, we should all live equally in society.