History II final outline - Industrial Revolution I prior to...

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Industrial Revolution I - prior to the IR, things were hand-madePRE-INDUSTRIAL ECONOMYAgriculture- severe limitation to the growth of city- insufficient- almost all cultures were agriculturalArtisanry- people had skills (building houses, metal work, etc)Cottage industry- people at home work as Artisans in their free time17TH & 18TH CENTURY CHANGESAgricultural revolution- made agriculture more efficient (ex: China’s use of the Iron Plow)- Basic crop – GRAIN- new techniques made agriculture more productive so you didn’t need near the laborPutting-out system- merchants would contract with farmers to collect goods from the cottage industryCommercial investments- investments switched from commerce to manufacturingManufacturing investments- went to how to produce things rather than how to transportMonarchy and Academy of SciencesGREAT BRITAINAgricultural changes: Food & Labor- had to focus on technology to keep up- technology was gathered from places they traded withTechnologyCentral BankingInternal and External Communications- waterways made it connected- no town was 20 miles from a water wayStable Government- most people thought that France was most developed- but not after France’s political Revolution instead of Industrial RevolutionColonies: External and Internal MarketsCOTTON INDUSTRY(THE FIRST BIG CHANGES OF THE REVOLUTION)John Kay - Flying Shuttle (1733)
James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny (1764)Richard Awkwright - Water Frame (1765)Samuel Crompton - Spinning Mule (1777)Edmund Cartwright - Power Loom (1785)*before cotton, clothing was expensive & slow to produceSTEAM POWERThomas Newcomen - Atmospheric Engine(1695-1706)James Watt -Steam Engine (1785)Boulton & Wilkinson - External CondenserINDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IICOAL, IRON & STEEL- GB ran out of charcoal and wood, so they had to use coal - coal didn’t burn as hot, so attached steam engine to a bellow to create much higher temperaturesPuddlingSteam-powered Bellows (blows air into the fire)Rolling MillsREVOLUTION (STATISTICS) Steel1740 - 17,000 Tons1788 - 68,000 Tons1844 - 3,000,000 TonsCotton Imports1750 - 5 million tons1850 - 588 million tonsSTEAM POWER - OTHER APPLICATIONS Fulton - SteamshipStephenson -Railroads (1825-1830)SPREAD OF STEAM POWERCockerill - Belgium (1799)Harkort - Prussia (1832)ROLE OF BANKSRothschilds & Credit Mobelier- GB had a great advantage of a strong central banking system to pay for loansECONOMIC & SOCIAL EFFECTSHUGE Entrepreneurial Middle ClassInvestors
OwnersManagersOther Middle ClassesLaborConditions- hours and salaries / women and childrenLawsArtisanry & Putting Out SystemNew Cities & TownsSECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONCombustion EngineElectricityLIBERALISM(LIBERATION FROM AUTOCRATS AND MONARCHIES)THEORY-Locke -Government Responsible to People & Human Equality-“tabula rasa” – Blank Slate-Montesquieu -Separation of Powers (gave ideas for US gov’t) -American & French Revolutions-Accomplishments and Failures-Economics -Adam Smith & Laissez faire (Adam Smith wrote Wealth of Nations) *Laissez Faire “let them do”SOCIAL BASESMiddle Class & Industrial RevolutionADVANCES AND RETREATS: Spain (1820)

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