History II final outline

History II final outline - Industrial Revolution I prior to...

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Industrial Revolution I - prior to the IR, things were hand-made PRE-INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY Agriculture - severe limitation to the growth of city - insufficient - almost all cultures were agricultural Artisanry - people had skills (building houses, metal work, etc) Cottage industry - people at home work as Artisans in their free time 17TH & 18TH CENTURY CHANGES Agricultural revolution - made agriculture more efficient (ex: China’s use of the Iron Plow) - Basic crop – GRAIN - new techniques made agriculture more productive so you didn’t need near the labor Putting-out system - merchants would contract with farmers to collect goods from the cottage industry Commercial investments - investments switched from commerce to manufacturing Manufacturing investments - went to how to produce things rather than how to transport Monarchy and Academy of Sciences GREAT BRITAIN Agricultural changes: Food & Labor - had to focus on technology to keep up - technology was gathered from places they traded with Technology Central Banking Internal and External Communications - waterways made it connected - no town was 20 miles from a water way Stable Government - most people thought that France was most developed - but not after France’s political Revolution instead of Industrial Revolution Colonies: External and Internal Markets COTTON INDUSTRY (THE FIRST BIG CHANGES OF THE REVOLUTION) John Kay - Flying Shuttle (1733)
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James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny (1764) Richard Awkwright - Water Frame (1765) Samuel Crompton - Spinning Mule (1777) Edmund Cartwright - Power Loom (1785) *before cotton, clothing was expensive & slow to produce STEAM POWER Thomas Newcomen - Atmospheric Engine(1695-1706) James Watt - Steam Engine (1785) Boulton & Wilkinson - External Condenser INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION II COAL, IRON & STEEL - GB ran out of charcoal and wood, so they had to use coal - coal didn’t burn as hot, so attached steam engine to a bellow to create much higher temperatures Puddling Steam-powered Bellows (blows air into the fire) Rolling Mills REVOLUTION (STATISTICS) Steel 1740 - 17,000 Tons 1788 - 68,000 Tons 1844 - 3,000,000 Tons Cotton Imports 1750 - 5 million tons 1850 - 588 million tons STEAM POWER - OTHER APPLICATIONS Fulton - Steamship Stephenson - Railroads (1825-1830) SPREAD OF STEAM POWER Cockerill - Belgium (1799) Harkort - Prussia (1832) ROLE OF BANKS Rothschilds & Credit Mobelier - GB had a great advantage of a strong central banking system to pay for loans ECONOMIC & SOCIAL EFFECTS HUGE Entrepreneurial Middle Class Investors
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Owners Managers Other Middle Classes Labor Conditions - hours and salaries / women and children Laws Artisanry & Putting Out System New Cities & Towns SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Combustion Engine Electricity LIBERALISM (LIBERATION FROM AUTOCRATS AND MONARCHIES) THEORY -Locke -Government Responsible to People & Human Equality -“tabula rasa” – Blank Slate -Montesquieu -Separation of Powers (gave ideas for US gov’t) -American & French Revolutions -Accomplishments and Failures -Economics -Adam Smith & Laissez faire (Adam Smith wrote Wealth of Nations ) *Laissez Faire “let them do” SOCIAL BASES Middle Class & Industrial Revolution ADVANCES AND RETREATS: Spain (1820)
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