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Book terms for test #2 - Book Terms for Test#2 CH...

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Book Terms for Test #2 CH 2 - Polytheism- a belief in multiple deities - Monotheism- a belief in one God - Messiah- Hebrew word meaning savior - Thales- 1 st Greek philosopher – believed the origin of the world was based on reason and the observation of nature without any need for the supernatural - Atomists- schools of ancient Greek philosophy founded in the 5 th century AD by Leucippus of Miletus and Democritus of Abdera; It held that the world consisted of innumerable, tiny, solid, indivisible, and unchangeable objects called atoms - Sophists- professional teachers who emerged in Greece who were paid to teach techniques of rhetoric, dialect, & argumentation - Polis- basic Greek political structure; “city-state” – citizens of each though they are descended from a common ancestor - Socrates- was committed to the search for truth and for the understanding of human affairs that he believed reason could uncover - Plato- was the 1 st systematic philosopher and therefore the 1 st thinker to situate political ideas in a broader philosophical context - Aristotle- pupil of Plato who view differed; founded his own school called the Lyceum; its members concentrated on gathering, ordering, and analyzing the data that was the basis for a human knowledge CH6 - Agape- meaning “love feast”. A common meal that was part of the central ritual of early Christian worship - Etruscans- people of central Italy who exerted the most powerful external influence on the early Romans - Imperium- in Ancient Rome, the right to issue commands and to enforce them by fines, arrests and even corporal and capitol punishment - Patricians- Hereditary upper class of early republican Rome - Plebians- hereditary lower class of early republican Rome - Censor- official of the Roman republic responsible for the census and compiling the list of citizens and members of the senate - Equestrians- literally “calvarymen” or “knights”. In the earliest years of the Roman republic, those who could afford to serve as mounted warriors - Eucharist- Meaning “thanksgiving”. Celebration of the Lord’s Supper; Considered the central ritual of worship by most Christians. Also call Holy Communion - Heretics- Persons whose religious beliefs differ from the official doctrines of their faith - Humanitas- Roman name for a liberal arts education - Imperator- Under the roman republic, the title given to a victorious general. Under Augustus and his successors, it became the title of the ruler of Rome, meaning “emperor” - Orthodox- Meaning “holding the right opinions”; Applied to the doctrines of the Catholic Church - Pharisee- Group that was most strict in its adherence to Jewish law - Punic Wars- Three wars between Rome and Carthage for dominance of the western Mediterranean that were fought from 264 BC to 146 BC
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- Syncretism- In religion, the equating or combining of deities CH12 - Apostolic primary- Doctrine that the popes are the direct successors to the Apostle Peter as such heads of the church - Demesne- Part of a manor that was cultivated directly for the lord of the manor -
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