3The Age of Revolutions I

3The Age of Revolutions I - The Age of Revolutions I...

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The Age of Revolutions I Intellectual Revolutions – Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment Political Revolutions – American, French, Haitian, Latin American
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Challenge of “discovery” Renaissance – 15 th century Italy – recovering “rebirth” of ancient civilization and knowledge. Newly “discovered” lands and technological advances involved in European expansionism – a big shock Knowledge can be discovered through exploration and experimentation. Moderns can know more than the ancients.
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Scientific(?) Revolution Avoid teleological metanarrative. In beginning intimately bound up with occult magic and religious exegesis.
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Henry Cornelius Agrippa (1486-1535) Magick – but organized, logical search for the truth. Virtues – Elementary, Celestial, and Intellectual – set in place by God, who shrouded them in mystery. Virtues can be discovered by contemplation.
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Development of the Scientific Method Observation, growth of vernacular, Technology and Mysticism Paracelsus – Chemist or Alchemist. Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) – empirical tradition and inductive reasoning. Rene Descartes – deductive reasoning – laws through mathematics.
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Rene Descartes Cogito, ergo sum. “I Think, therefore I am.” Meditations on First Philosophy in which the Existence of God and the Distinction Between Mind and Body are Demonstrated.
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Sir Isaac Newton (1646-1723) Amalgam of inductive and deductive. “standing on the shoulders of giants” All bodies obey same laws of gravitation and motion. But devoted Anglican and Alchemist. “the last of the great magicians”.
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The Enlightenment Grew out of the intellectual habits of the Scientific Revolution. Changed the way Europeans thought about everything. Literacy rates higher than ever. Three central concepts – Rationalism, Social Sciences and Progress. The end of the medieval world view.
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Deists and Skeptics Voltaire(1694-1778) and Pierre Bayle (1647-1706)
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John Locke, Essays Concerning Human Understanding (1690) Tabula rasa - a blank slate Social institutions and education responsible for people’s characters and good and evil.
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Enlightenment in France By 1775 Enlightenment ideas embraced by Europe’s elite. Especially in France – most successful nation and trendsetters. Limited censorship. Subtle political criticism.
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Seventy books. Loved English constitutionalism. Not a political
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIS 1000 taught by Professor Cooper during the Spring '08 term at St. Johns Duplicate.

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3The Age of Revolutions I - The Age of Revolutions I...

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