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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Psychology Definition: Scientific study of behavior and mental processes. "Folk" Psychology vs. Scientific Psychology Empirical research methods Basic & Applied Research Goals of Psychology (Sci. in general): Describe Explain Predict Control (influence)
th th Structuralism Germany late 19 early 20 c. Wilhelm Wundt 1879 (Leipzig) Structuralism (Titchener) Nature (i.e., structure) of the mind and conscious experience. Determine the elemental units of consciousness Major method was introspection Narrow, "controlled" experiments Functionalism U.S. late 19th 20th c. William James 1875, Harvard Functionalism: Mental functions how mind works Critical influences Darwin Pragmatism Two ways of looking at function Immediate functions Adaptive properties Behaviorism U.S. 20th c. John Watson, 1913, Hopkins Rejected the "mind" as a valid topic for Psychology Focus on observable behavior Influenced by Pavlov's (Russia) work on conditioned reflex. Learning is a core topic S-R model Importance of reward/punishment (Thorndike) Impact of environment Most influential Behaviorist: B.F. Skinner Dominant from ~1920-1960. ~1920-1960. Important long-term influence Gestalt Psychology Germany late 19 20 c. Max Wertheimer Emphasis on perception Mental activity is more than sum of individual sensations Influenced later Cognitive Psychology
th th th Psychoanalytic Psychology Germany late 19 20th c. Freud Vienna Mind is a dynamic energy system. Internal conflict Unconscious processes Developmental stages "Psychodynamic" Theories Humanistic Psychology U.S. 1950s and `60s Against deterministic & materialistic Behaviorist and Psychodynamic models Emphasized free will and choice Phenomenological approach Influential in some clinical models Cognitive Psychology U.S./U.K. (now worldwide) from 1950s/60s onward. Mental events and processes (e.g., attention, perception, memory, imagery, etc.). Influenced by development of computers "Information Processing" models Communication theory & AI Integral part of cognitive science/neuroscience "New" areas of Psychology Biological/Physiological Psychology Evolutionary Psychology: Assumes that many human characteristics/traits are result of natural selection. Sociocultural/Crosscultural Psychology What do Psychologists do? Three basic categories (overlaps common) Clinical Research/Experimental/Academic Applied Clinical Specializations Psychiatrists (MD + Specialization) Clinical Psychologists (Masters, Doctorate Ph.D., PsyD.) Counseling Psychologists (Masters, Doctorate Ph.D., Ed.D.) Clinical Social Worker (Masters MSW, Doctorate Ph.D.) Psychiatric Nurse (MS Nursing + specialization) Research/Experimental/Academic Mostly in university or research institute settings. Academics typically also teach. Wide variety (e.g., our department) This is one area there are usually overlaps between categories. Applied Some Examples Human Factors design a better cockpit Industrial Organizational help organizations work more efficiently & productively Sports Psychologist assist in training and performance School Psychologist work with students and teachers to assist/enhance learning. Scientific Method Best way to answer questions about natural world Hypothesis testing & Theory Building Hypotheses Observation/Question .... leads to... Hypothesis: a testable prediction Tested hypothesis can lead to ...... not supporting us (back to drawing board) support of our prediction .... Leads to .... Replication Direction for more hypotheses Data from tested hypotheses used to develop a theory test predictions from a theory Theory Best explanation of a phenomenon based on the current data. Essential criteria Testable/based on testable hypotheses Consistent with most known facts Falsifiable Change with new information Research Methods in Psychology Descriptive (e.g., Naturalistic Observation) Correlational Experiments Descriptive Research Accurately describe some behavior/activity Basic types Naturalistic Observation Participant Observer research Case Studies Self-reports (surveys, interviews, etc.) No manipulation or control no causal inference. Descr. Research Cautions Reactivity (e.g., observer effect, "faking good") Observer Bias ("anthropomorphic error" when observing animals) No manipulation or control no causal inference. Correlations Purpose: Find predictable patterns Observe/Record how two variables co-relate No manipulation & Control --- Cannot be used to infer causality Correlation coefficient Cannot infer causality: Third variable problem (ice cream & homicide rate) Bi-directional (aggressive behavior & aggressive video games) Correlation Coefficient Index/Measure of the relationship Strength (| 0 1.00 |) [see next slide] Direction (+) (+ Experiments Manipulation & Control: causal inference Components Experimental (Treatment) vs. Control Variables: IV, DV, EV (extraneous) Random Assignment avoids selection bias Random/Representative Sample Bias & confounding variables Response bias (e.g., reactivity). Placebos (single-blind) used to try to control for (single-blind) this. Selection bias Researcher bias/Expectancy. Self-fulfilling prophecy Double-blind used to control for this. Sampling Bias Regardless of your major take a course in statistics! Don't Get Fooled Be skeptical What's the agenda? Follow the money Correlation isn't causation We see what we want to see An example is not an explanation Usually, we really don't know Chapter 2: Brain and Behavior Cells of the Nervous System Neurons send and receive information Three basic types Sensory: PNS CNS Motor: CNS PNS Interneuron: Neuron Neuron Glia ("glue") 10X as many glia as neurons Chapter 2 Many different types Play critical roles in nervous system Neuron and Its Parts Dendrites: Receive messages from other neurons Soma: Cell body; body of the neuron Axon Hillock: Where the soma "ends" and the Axon begins. Action Potential starts here. Axon: Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron Myelin Sheath: Lipid (fatty) covering of some axons. Axon Terminals: Branches that link the dendrites and somas of other neurons The Nerve Impulse (Action Potential) Two general rules for action potentials are: All or none: A neuron will produce a full strength AP or none at all. One-way: The flow of information is always dendrites/cell body axon terminal buttons Action Potential and Related Terms Resting Potential: Electrical charge of an inactive neuron ( 70 mv) Threshold: Trigger point for a neuron's firing ( 50 mv) Action Potential: Nerve impulse (+ 30 mv) Negative After-Potential: A drop in electrical charge below the resting potential ( 80 mv) Synapse Microscopic gap between two neurons over which messages (via neurotransmitters) pass Message from NeuronA NeuronB Two forms: Excitation the information from A makes B more likely to "fire" (i.e., produce an impulse). Inhibition the information from A makes B less likely to "fire" (i.e., does not produce an impulse). Locks and Keys Metaphor key = the NT molecule Lock = receptor site (molecule in the post-synaptic membrane) Excitatory shift to AP the individual changes at receptor sites may "add up" to bring the cell to AP threshold. threshold. AP threshold ~ -55 mv. (RP = -70 mv.) Inhibitory keeps cell at RP membrane becomes hyperpolarized e.g., -- gates opened by the inhibitory NT allow more Cl to enter the cell At any point in time a neuron will be processing both excitatory and inhibitory signals. Cleanup used NTs If NT binds after use it is broken (by enzymes) and becomes waste. If NT does not bind broken down by enzymes. absorbed and destroyed by astrocyte (glial cell) diffuse away (eventually becomes waste). absorbed back into the pre-synaptic neuron (reuptake). (reuptake). Neurotransmitters and Behavior Some examples of NTs: Acetylcholine (CNS memory; PNS muscle activity) Amino Acids Glutamate most common excitatory; learning/memory GABA most common inhibitory (Benzodiazepines affect GABA sites) Peptides (endorphins, substance "p") Monoamines (next slide) Monoamines Dopamine muscle control, frontal lobe functions, motivation and emotion (esp. pleasurable feelings). Parkinson's (deficit); Schizophrenia symptoms (excess). Norepinephrine & Epinephrine: attention, impulsivity, "fight or flight" response, mood states (NorE.). Serotonin: Mood states especially depression and anxiety. Drugs and the Brain Agonists (assist) vs. Antagonists (block) Some drugs target action of specific NT Alcohol, benzodiazepines GABA Fluoxetine (e.g., Prozac) Serotonin Nerve Agents (Poisons) Acetylcholine Some drugs affect more than one NT Cocaine & Amphetamines Acetylcholine, Dopamine Imipramine (Tricyclic) Norepinephrine, Serotonin Researching the Brain Damage: Accidental Ablation: Surgical removal of tissue Deep Lesioning: A thin wire electrode is lowered into a specific area inside the brain. Electrical current is then used to destroy a small amount of brain tissue. Electrical Recording: EEG, ERP Imaging CAT & MRI (structure) fMRI and PET (function) CAT Slices fMRI: Blind person reading Braille PET (positron emission tomography) maps brain activity. This technique has been extremely useful in studying cognitive processes. Major Divisions of the Brain Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain Cerebral Cortex: Terms Cortex Outer layer of the cerebrum Cerebrum: Two large hemispheres that cover upper part of the brain Cerebral Hemispheres: Right and left halves of the cortex. Contralateral Function Corpus Callosum: Bundle of fibers connecting cerebral hemispheres Sub-Cortical Forebrain structures: Many a part of the Limbic System Limbic System Thalamus: Relays sensory information to the cortex; switchboard Hypothalamus: Regulates homeostatic motivational states (e.g., temperature, hunger, thirst) Amygdala: Associated with fear responses Hippocampus: Associated with storing memories; helps us navigate through space Frontal "Executive control functions" initiation and control of motor activity, planning and judgment. Phineas Gage In left hemisphere the lower part of the motor area is specialized for language production (Broca's Area). Parietal Spatial/body perception, large association area Sensory Neglect Caused by damage to parietal lobe (L or R) Person ignores (neglects) information on contralateral side. e.g., of RH parietal lobe damage causing visual sensory neglect for information on the left side. Occipital Visual perception Damage e.g. Primary visual cortex blindness Secondary visual cortex color vision (acquired achromatopsia) Temporal Temporal auditory perception, large association area. Large part of LH specialized for language (Wernicke's Area). Aphasia: Language disorder produced by brain damage. Broca's aphasia (aka production aphasia): aphasia): Wernicke's aphasia (aka receptive aphasia) aphasia) Split Brains Corpus Callosum is cut; done to control severe epilepsy (seizure disorder). Result: The person now has two brains in one body. Chapter 4
Sensation & Perception Definitions Sensation: Sensory receptors respond to stimuli, transduce the information and send information to the brain. Perception: Sensory information is actively organized and interpreted by the brain. Sensory Coding (Transduction): The process through which sensory receptors convert the sensory stimulation into electrochemical neural impulses Sensory Localization: The sensation we experience depends on where the sensory information is processed Visual Processes Light visual spectrum. Three wave properties Wavelength hue (reds/oranges longer; blues/purples shorter) Amplitude brightness (value) Purity Saturation (Chroma) e.g., slice of Munsell color solid The Retina of the Eye Rods: Light receptors in the retina. Sensitive to brightness -- No color Cones: receptor cells in the retina -- color Fovea: center of the retina; clearest and sharpest vision concentration of cones Blind Spot: No rods or cones. Optic nerve exits Color Theories Young-Helmholtz: Trichromatic Hering: Opponent Process Hearing Frequency (Wavelength): pitch. Measured in Hertz (Hz.) Amplitude: loudness. Measured in decibels (db) Timbre: Purity. Distinguishes sounds of same pitch and loudness Human hearing: "20 to 20" ... 20 Hz to 20 kHz Most communication 200 Hz 8 kHz Most sensitive 1kHz 3.5 kHz Keyboard (88 key) 1 = 27.5 Hz, 40 (middle C) = ~262 Hz, 49 (standard A) = 440 Hz, 88 = ~ 4186 Singing voice ~ 80 1000 Hz The Human Ear External Ear Contains the ossicles Connect the ear drum to the oval window Amplifies sound waves Inner Ear Cochlea The fluid filled snail shaped bony chamber. Contains the basilar membrane and hair cells Hair Cells Sound receptors inside inner ear Theories of Hearing Place Theory Pitch determined by the particular place along the basilar membrane that vibrates the most. Works best for med Frequency Theory Hair cell receptors send impulses at the same frequency as the pitch General Sensory Phenomena Sensory Adaptation Sensory Gating best example is pain Pain messages from different nerve fibers pass through the same "neural" gate in the spinal cord If gate is closed by one pain message, other messages may not be able to pass through Selective Attention Cocktail party effect Inattentional Blindness Change Blindness Visual Perception Gestalt Psychology Constancies Organizing Principles Depth Perception Binocular depth cues requires both eyes. Monocular cues one eye Linear Perspective Height in plane Relative size Texture gradient Aerial perspective Interposition Motion Parallax Visual Illusions "Thatcher" Illusion ...
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- Fall '07