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ch14 - Chapter 14 Mendel and the Gene Idea Genes heritable...

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Chapter 14 Mendel and the Gene Idea Genes : heritable units, specific location on chromosomes (locus) Alleles : alt versions of genes Characters : heritable feature that varies among individuals Trait : each variant of a character Each Reproductive Event : Parental Generation (P Generation) F1 generation (Offspring) F2 generation (Offspring of F1 Generation) Gregor Mendel Revolutionized the field of genetics Pre-Mendel: variation from blending once blended, can’t unblend offspring are intermediates eventually offspring are identical once blended, original trait can’t reappear Mendel Carefully planned experiments on pea plants in monastery garden Quantitative, experimental methods , large sample sizes Mendel worked on garden peas because: Available in easily distinguishable varieties Strict control over mating possible petals cover the carpel (female) and stamen (male) normally self-fertilize remove stamen and dust with pollen know both parents in cross (hybridization) Mendel worked on peas because : Peas have 2 alternate forms of each of the 7 characters he examined: flower color (purple vs. white) flower position (on stem vs. on tip of plant) seed color (yellow vs. green) seed shape (smooth vs. wrinkled) pod shape (smooth vs. lumpy) pod color (green vs. yellow) stem length (tall vs. short)
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CHARACTER! TRAITS! Before starting experimental cross: Followed plants through many self-fertilization generations These were true-breeding individuals Experimental design : Crossed two true-breeding individuals with alternate forms of the character
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