bio2ch3 - Chapter 3 Life and Chemistry: Large Molecules 1)...

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Chapter 3 Life and Chemistry: Large Molecules 1) The origin of life a) Did life come from extraterrestrial sources? b) Did life originate on Earth? i) Chemical evolution 2) Did life originate on Earth? a) Many molecules have a unique 3-dimensional handedness b) Scientist’s now have a different view of Earth’s original atmosphere c) Polymers had to be formed d) It is believed that life originated in hot pools at the edge of oceans 3) Macromolecules a) Giant polymers i) Poly – “many” ii) –mer – “unit” b) Formed by covalent bonding between monomers c) Proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids d) Have molecular weights over 1,000 e) Have specific functions 4) Condensation reactions a) Form macromolecules 5) Hydrolysis reactions a) Break down macromolecules b) Break down polymers into monomers 6) Proteins: polymers of amino acids a) Structural support b) Catalysis c) Protection d) Transport e) Defense f) Regulation g) Movement 7) Amino Acids a) A central alpha-carbon attached to 4 different groups b) The R groups determine the 3-dimensional structure and function of the protein c) Amino acids are grouped together by their side chains d) 20 amino acids 8) Special Amino Acids a) Cysteine i) Has a terminal –SH group ii) Form disulfide bonds with other cysteines b) Glycine i) Side chain is a single Hydrogen c) Proline i) Lacks a hydrogen on its amino group
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ii) Often found at bends or loops 9) Peptide Linkages 10) Protein Structure a) There are 4 levels of protein structure i) Primary protein structure (1) The amino acid sequence of the protein (2) Repeating sequence of 3 atoms, N-C-C ii) Secondary protein structure (1) Results from H- bonding between amino acids in the polypeptide chain (2) Regular repeated patterns within the protein (a) The alpha helix (i) A right - handed coil that forms within the protein 1. Presence of large R- groups can prevent formation (b) The beta pleated sheet (i) Formed between 2 or more polypeptide chains of between different
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOL 2180 taught by Professor Harmich during the Spring '08 term at Toledo.

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bio2ch3 - Chapter 3 Life and Chemistry: Large Molecules 1)...

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