PHRM 234 - Notes for the 2nd Exam

PHRM 234 - Notes for the 2nd Exam - March 1st 2005 1...

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st 2005 1. Vitamins a. What are vitamins? i. Vitamins are indispensable organic compounds. ii. Vitamins are found in natural food. iii. Vitamins help maintain the integrity of the cells. iv. Vitamins sustain normal metabolism and growth. v. Vitamins are not biosynthesized by the body except for Vitamin D and nicotinic acid by living organisms. 1. This is unlike carbohydrates and proteins, which can be synthesized by living organisms. vi. Vitamins are obtained from exogenous sources. vii. Vitamins do not provide energy. viii. Vitamins are not building blocks of cellular components and nucleic acids. ix. Vitamins serve as cofactors in biological enzymatic reactions. x. Vitamins are involved in regulatory functions of metabolism. xi. Vitamins are present in the diet of animals. xii. The lack of one vitamin will lead to a particular set of symptoms that are associated with the deficiency of that vitamin. 1. This can be corrected or reversed by the uptake of that particular deficient . 2. If this is left untreated, death and other serious consequences can result. b. Before 1912, it was believed that natural food has the essential constituents to maintain normal growth. i. It was also known that diseases can be linked with to the diet of natural foods. c. In 1906, the constituents in natural foods were called Accessory Food Factors, but at that time, no single compound had been isolated, purified, or identified chemically. d. In 1912, Funk obtained a concentrated and pure amine from the brain of a mice, which had the ability to alleviate the symptoms associated with beri- beri. i. Funk called this one of the vital amines, which was later termed vitamines. ii. It was deemed that food factors were vital and important to living cells, as well as being important by themselves. e. In 1915, a group of scientist rejected the term vitamine when they found that other food factors that lacked an amine group. i. They found both fat soluble and water soluble compounds, so a new nomenclature was developed, which is the current classification of vitamins with alphabetical letters. ii.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PHRM 234 taught by Professor Vinogradova during the Spring '08 term at UConn.

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PHRM 234 - Notes for the 2nd Exam - March 1st 2005 1...

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