104-7.1-stonetools-pottery

104-7.1-stonetools-pottery - Typology I Lithics Stone Tools...

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Unformatted text preview: Typology I Lithics: Stone Tools Stone Tools and Archaeology • Common throughout prehistory – Only durable tool until metallurgy (over 2 million years) – Reductive technology: manufactured by removing material from core (creates substantial residue: debitage) • Inorganic: do not decay • Same basic process for manufacture used across all of prehistory – Percussion (grinding – later development) Stone Tools: Raw Materials • Needs specific types of stone – Non-crystalline; homogenous; “Cryptocrystalline” – Conchoidal fracture • “Molecular edge” – Ideal: natural glass (obsidian) – Chert/flint; quartzite; basalt; quartz Conchoidal Fracture Raw Materials Obsidian Chert Quartzite Stone Tools vs. Metal • Stone: Sharper (up to 1000x); ubiquitous raw materials – Brittle; high breakage rate • Metal: Durable; more flexible – Require complex technology (smelting, alloying (natural cold hammering inferior to stone tools) Stone Tool Manufacture • Percussion: – using hard or soft hammer to remove flakes from core – Subsequent hammering to shape flake or core to desired shape – Pressure flaking for final shaping and sharpening • “Flintknapping” Debitage • Waste flakes left over from tool manufacture • Most common artifact throughout most of prehistory • Analysis: – Reconstruct production sequence – Utilization (retouch, polish) Flake Morphology...
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104-7.1-stonetools-pottery - Typology I Lithics Stone Tools...

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