CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONThe prostate is a walnut-sized gland that forms part of the male reproductive system. It is located anterior to the rectum and just distal to the urinary bladder. It is in continuum with the urinary tract and connects directly with the penile urethra. It is therefore a conduit between the bladder and the urethra.( ). Benign enlargement of the prostate gland is an extremely common process that occurs in nearly all men with functioning testes. Hyperplasia is a general medical term referring to excess cell replication. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition where the prostate gland enlarges, extending upward into the bladder and obstructing the outflow of urine by encroaching the vesical orifice. Examination reveals a prostate gland that is large, rubbery and nontender. ( Medical Surgical Nursing by Smeltzer and Bare).Nobody knows the basic cause of BPH. Research shows that testosterone, the male hormone, or dihydrotestosterone, a chemical produced when testosterone breaks down in a man's body, may cause the prostate to keep growing. Another theory is that changes in the ratio of testosterone and estrogen (female hormone) as men age cause the prostate to grow.Some over the counter medications for colds or allergies can drastically worsen BPH. ( )The obstructive and irritative symptom complex( referred to as PORSTATIN) includes
increase frequency of urination, nocturia, urgency, hesitancy in starting urination, abdominal straining with urination, a dercease in the volume and force of urinary stream, interruption of the urinary stream, dribbling, a sensation that the bladder has not been completely emptied, acute urinary retention, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Generalized symptoms may also be noted, including fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and epigastria discomfort. (Medical Surgical Nursing by Smeltzer and Bare).
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- prostatic hyperplasia