1. The reunification happened under the Sui dynasty.2. Buddhism gave the Tang emperors the spiritual function of welding humankind into a harmonious Buddhist society according to some interpretations.3. The tang Empire in considered cosmopolitan because its capital became a center of communication continentally and a part of a vigorous commercial world.4. Chang’ an is important because it became the center of what is often called the tributary system.5. Chinese mariners and shipwrights excelled in compass design and the construction of very large oceangoing vessels.6. The sea route linking the Red Sea and Persian Gulf with Canton also brought East Asia the “plague of Justinian”.7. New motifs to ceramics, painting, silk designs, pants, cotton imported from Central Asia, various stringed instruments Turkic folk melodies, grape wine from West Asia and tea, sugar, and spices from India all were brought to China.8. China remained the sole source of superior silks.9. The original homeland of the Turks lay in the northern part of modern Mongolia.10. Uighurs excelled as merchants and as scribes able to transact business in many languages.11. He was assassinated by Buddhist monks, and control of the Tibetan royal family passed into the hands of religious leaders.12. The Tang elites came to see Buddhism as undermining the Confucian idea of the family as the model for the state.13. Despite continuing prosperity, political disintegration and the elite’s sense of cultural decay created an unsettled environment that encouraged aspiring dictators. The new hatred of “barbarians” spurred the rebels to murder thousands of foreign residents in Canton and Beijing.14. The Liao Empire of the Khitan˚ people, pastoral nomads related to the Mongols living on the northeastern frontier, established their rule in the north, and lastly the Song Empire was formed.15. The Liao rulers prided themselves on their pastoral traditions; the continuing source of their military might, and made no attempt to create a single elite culture.
16. The Song tired of paying the annual tribute and entered into a secret alliance with the