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Unformatted text preview: to analyse
how the failure occurred.
Responsibility (See Authority.)
Rework: To repair or adjust an item so that it can pass inspection.
Root cause: The basic, real cause of a problem.
Rules for job authority: The rules for job authority document the scope of responsibility
and authority for the job of every employee of every department throughout the company.
They describe how the employees doing each job should be managed, and how to prepare
plans and define responsibilities for emergencies. S
Sample: In statistics, part of a population (a group of items – see population) selected in
order to get information about the whole population.
Sampling: Comparing a product with a typical sample of the product that is of the right
Scatter diagram: A diagram used to determine whether a correlation exists between two
Schedule control table: Table in which improvement objectives, measures to achieve them
and target values are summarized.
Self-management: When employees manage their own work. The term ‘self-control’ is
sometimes used in TQM with the same meaning.
Sensory inspection: An inspection carried out by the senses: touch, taste, sight, hearing, or
SOP: Standard operating procedure. A Roadmap to Quality 11 Glossary Glossary.qxd 3/10/05 12:25 PM Page 12 SPC: Statistical process control – a statistical tool for measuring variation.
Standard: A prescribed way to do a job, carry out an operation, or complete a process.
Standards are written up so that everyone will complete jobs, operations or processes in the
same way. The verb is to standardize. A number of verbs go with standards: establish or
institute standards means to write up standards and put them into effect; classify
standards – organize standards systematically in groups using numbers and symbols;
abolish standards – cancel them; withdraw standards - suspend or cancel them; draft
standards – prepare written standards to be approved; control standards – check that they
continue to be valid: announce standards – make known that standards are now valid; file
standards – put them in order for easy access; review standards – examine standards and
consider whether they need to be changed; revise standards – make changes to standards.
Standard sample: Typical sample of a product showing its proper quality characteristics.
Compare with boundary samples.
Standard value: The numerical value which is specified in the standard.
Stratify: To divide data into several strata according to the sources of the data in order to find
out the real causes of problems, e.g. data could be stratified by machines, by workers or by
shifts, to identify the cause of defects. It is one of the 7 QC Tools. (See Unit 11.3.4.)
Subjective evaluation: Evaluation based on subjective factors such as appearance or taste.
SWOT analysis: Method for analyzing the present position of a company. Usually this is
used for setting strategy and policy: S: strengths – points to be maintained as advantages or
further developed; W: weaknesses – points to be improved; O: opportunities – areas to
expand the business; T: threats – to identify threats in advance and set up countermeasures
beforehand to reduce negative effects on the business. T
Tangible and intangible effects: Tangible effects are, for example, a reduction in the time
required for delivery, which numerical values can clearly confirm. Intangible effects are, for
example, improved teamwork and quality consciousness.
Target quality: The quality of the product that the process is supposed to produce.
Target value: The desired outcomes from a process.
Term-end reflection: Review of policies at the end of each term, usually the end of the
year. There are two types of reflection: reflection on results and reflection on processes.
The seven QC tools: Pareto Diagram, Cause and Effect Diagram, Check Sheet, Histogram,
Control Chart, Graphic Chart, Scatter Diagram (See Unit 11.3.)
Theme: An item chosen for improvement. It may be a task, a process or a problem that
needs to be solved.
A Roadmap to Quality 12 Glossary Glossary.qxd 3/10/05 12:25 PM Page 13 Time series graph: Graph that shows changes over a period of time.
Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM): Where everyone from CEOs to frontline workers
takes part in maintenance activities. It includes all forms of maintenance.
Traceable: Where it is possible to trace the history, application or location of an item, e.g. in
the case of the product, the origin of materials and parts, the processing history and the
distribution and location of the product after delivery.
Trend: A change in a certain direction over a period of time that can be seen on a graph,
e.g. the number of defects shows a decrease in the first six months of the year. U
Upstream (See Downstream.) V
Value added: The parts of the process that add worth from the perspective of the external
Variance: Small differences in the way an operation is carried out.
Value Engineering (VE): A systematic and organised procedural decision-making process
that helps people or organisation to creativel...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2013 for the course MKT marketing taught by Professor Anamika during the Spring '12 term at Punjab Engineering College.
- Spring '12