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iv. Have the operational methods changed?
v. Has the working environment changed?
In the example in parag. 3d above, the chances are that factors which differ between
systems A and B, are the genuine causes.
b. Look at the concrete facts and ask the question "Why?" five times (see the example in
Figure 9.4a). This will lead the investigation beyond superficial causes to identify
possible root causes.
c. Use cause and effect diagrams and other QC tools (See Unit 11 Statistics) to
examine the possible causes that emerge in steps a. and b. This may lead to the
identification of more possible causes. Then organise all of these possible causes
7. From all these possible causes identify the genuine causes:
a. Establish which of these possible causes have a substantial effect on the problems.
Use cause and effect diagrams to narrow these down and construct an hypothesis on
how the abnormality may have developed.
b. Check this short-list of possible causes against the facts to identify which of them are
the genuine causes. If possible carry out experiments to show the relationship
between these possible causes and the effects. If experiments are not possible, look
carefully at the effect these possible causes have on later operations.
Figure 9.10a Procedure for problem resolution and easy QC methods. This chart shows how
the QC tools can be used with the QC Story, but note that it uses a slightly different
description of the steps in the story.
8. The QC Story may be presented at a QC assembly. (See Unit 10.8.) Discussion
Continue with discussing your theme (or problem) from Text 9.9:
a. Parag. 2: Can you give any examples from your own experience where you found yourself
focusing on the causes of a problem before you had a good grasp of its effects?
b. Parag. 3: Discuss how you would examine the problem that you have chosen in Text
9.9 for this discussion with reference to these four factors. Alternatively, give
examples of problems that have already been solved in your workplace, and discuss
how they exemplify these factors.
Unit 9 - Problem solving 34 A Roadmap to Quality 05-87581_unit 9.qxd 09/09/2005 11:55 Page 35 c. Parag. 4: How important do you think these three research methods are? Are there
any others that you would include?
d. Parags. 6 and 7: Apply these guidelines to the problem you have chosen.
Alternatively discuss how they would helped with problems that you have already
dealt with. Action plan
You will be invited to write an action plan after you have discussed all three QC Story texts. A Roadmap to Quality 35 Unit 9 - Problem solving 05-87581_unit 9.qxd 09/09/2005 11:55 Page 36 9.11 The QC Story III
1. This text presents the final four stages of the QC Story:
a. Devise and implement recurrence prevention measures.
b. Confirm the effects of these measures.
c. Standardise the new methods.
d. Reflect on the problems left unsolved. Devise and implement recurrence prevention measures
2. It is important to distinguish between emergency actions and recurrence prevention measures.
Emergency actions are taken to eliminate the phenomena (the immediate, visible problems, e.g.
stop more non-conforming products being made) while recurrence prevention measures are
taken both to eliminate the phenomena and investigate the causes identified in the Analysis
stage. Both emergency and recurrence prevention measures should be taken even if symptoms
weaken or disappear temporarily. (See also Text 9.3)
3. In devising recurrence prevention measures:
a. Devise measures against each confirmed cause.
b. Brainstorm as many measures as possible, without thinking at first of how useful they
c. Assess all these measures and narrow them down to those you will implement.
Examine the following points carefully:
i. If the anticipated effects can be achieved.
ii. If the costs are acceptable (cost-effectiveness).
iii. If the plan is technically feasible (technicality).
iv. If the tasks can be performed adequately (operability).
v. If there are any safety problems (safety). Test and confirm items that affect quality
4. Prepare implementation plans: Determine who should do what and by when. Remember
that the implementation of recurrence prevention measures can sometimes have a
negative effect on other departments and sections. If this is the case, the improvements
they bring about will be meaningless. Predict fully the negative effects on other
departments and sections and get their approval before going ahead with
implementation. Confirm the effects of the measures taken
5. There are two types of effects that can result from the actions taken, both of which
should be confirmed:
a. Tangible effects: those that can be quantified, e.g. A reduction in the defect ratio and
costs, and in the time required for delivery – which numerical values can clearly
confirm. Unit 9 - Problem solving 36 A Roadmap to Quality 05-87581_unit 9.qxd 09/09/2005 11:55 Page 37 b. Intan...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2013 for the course MKT marketing taught by Professor Anamika during the Spring '12 term at Punjab Engineering College.
- Spring '12