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Unformatted text preview: level in the quality control criteria of a product.
Control graph: A time-series graph that contains action limits.
Control items: As used in policy management, measurable items used to judge whether or
not tasks assigned to departments or sections or individuals have been carried out; if not,
necessary action should be taken, e.g. sales, break-even ratios. More generally defined, the
specific features of a process or quality that are examined in controlling the process
Control limit (See Control chart.)
Control point: Predetermined points in a process which can be examined to see if
production is continuous and stable.
Correlation: A measure of the relationship between two sets of variable data. In many
cases, only the degree of linear relationship is indicated. Positive correlation: when one
characteristic increases as the other increases. Negative correlation: one characteristic
becomes smaller as the other becomes bigger.
Co-efficient of correlation: The degree of correlation between two characteristics, with a
value in the range from -1 to +1. A value close to -1 indicates a strong negative correlation,
a value close to +1 indicates a strong positive correlation, and a value close to 0 indicates a
Countermeasures are taken to deal with an out-of-control event or abnormality, and in
particular to ensure that it will not occur again. (An out-of-control event is one that is outside
the control limits of what is acceptable.)
Cross-functional: Refers to a situation where a process or an activity crosses the boundary
between two or more functions. A cross-functional team consists of individuals from more
than one organizational unit or function. A Roadmap to Quality 4 Glossary Glossary.qxd 3/10/05 12:25 PM Page 5 D
Dead inventory: Goods or stocks that are not sold or used after the maximum storage time
that is allowed.
Defect: The words deficiency, defect, defective are used when an item is incomplete or does
not function properly.
Deploy policy: Communicate policy to those who must follow it, or implement it.
Design validation: Confirmation that the design meets the specifications and target
Discrete value: A value that can be counted, e.g. the number of defects.
Dispersion of data: The distribution of data in a chart around the central tendency of the
chart. The central tendency is where most of the data appears. (See Unit 9.7.)
Dispose of: Get rid of.
Document: As a verb, the word document means to record something in writing.
Downstream: The terms downstream, midstream, and upstream indicate where something
stands in the production process - upstream being nearer to the beginning of the process
and downstream being nearer to the point of sale. E
Effect-factor check: Used to see if the effects or results of operations – the quality
characteristics of the products – satisfy standards.
Emergency actions are taken to eliminate the immediate phenomena, or visible signs of a
problem, before investigating the causes, e.g. stop non-conforming products being made.
Equipment maintenance: A generic term for activities like inspection, adjusting parts,
replacing material, and carrying out repairs in non-conforming sections.
Evaluation items: The specific items that are evaluated in order to judge whether activities
are going as planned or not.
Examination items: The features in a product that are examined or inspected.
External quality assurance: Activities that will convince the customer of product quality. F
Facility life-cycle cost: The entire costs incurred during the lifetime of a facility and its
equipment, from the start of operation to the point of scrapping. A Roadmap to Quality 5 Glossary Glossary.qxd 3/10/05 12:25 PM Page 6 Factor analysis: A statistical procedure that seeks to explain a certain phenomenon in terms
of the behavior of a set of predictive factors.
Failure: In the context of maintenance this refers to the loss of facility or equipment
functions, or of those functions that are required under given conditions over a prescribed
period of time.
FIFO (first-in, first-out) storage: Usually used with inventories where the first items put into
the store are the first taken out to be used, to prevent items aging.
Fixed-point method: A method used to determine when to place a purchase order. In this
method if the inventory falls to a pre-determined level, then a purchase order for a fixed
amount will be placed.
FMEA (failure, mode and effects analysis): A technique for analyzing the types of failure
of constituent parts (failure-phenomena) and their effects on higher items (e.g. facilities,
equipment machines, tools, parts, and systems). It identifies incomplete designs and latent
Fraction defective: The proportion of minor defects.
FTA method (failure tree analysis): A technique used to analyze the root causes, and
ratios of failures by tracing back events and developing a tree-like figure. G
Given margin: Fixed distance beyond a point, or between two values or points. H
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2013 for the course MKT marketing taught by Professor Anamika during the Spring '12 term at Punjab Engineering College.
- Spring '12