Control items as used in policy management measurable

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Unformatted text preview: level in the quality control criteria of a product. Control graph: A time-series graph that contains action limits. Control items: As used in policy management, measurable items used to judge whether or not tasks assigned to departments or sections or individuals have been carried out; if not, necessary action should be taken, e.g. sales, break-even ratios. More generally defined, the specific features of a process or quality that are examined in controlling the process or quality. Control limit (See Control chart.) Control point: Predetermined points in a process which can be examined to see if production is continuous and stable. Correlation: A measure of the relationship between two sets of variable data. In many cases, only the degree of linear relationship is indicated. Positive correlation: when one characteristic increases as the other increases. Negative correlation: one characteristic becomes smaller as the other becomes bigger. Co-efficient of correlation: The degree of correlation between two characteristics, with a value in the range from -1 to +1. A value close to -1 indicates a strong negative correlation, a value close to +1 indicates a strong positive correlation, and a value close to 0 indicates a weak correlation. Countermeasures are taken to deal with an out-of-control event or abnormality, and in particular to ensure that it will not occur again. (An out-of-control event is one that is outside the control limits of what is acceptable.) Cross-functional: Refers to a situation where a process or an activity crosses the boundary between two or more functions. A cross-functional team consists of individuals from more than one organizational unit or function. A Roadmap to Quality 4 Glossary Glossary.qxd 3/10/05 12:25 PM Page 5 D Dead inventory: Goods or stocks that are not sold or used after the maximum storage time that is allowed. Defect: The words deficiency, defect, defective are used when an item is incomplete or does not function properly. Deploy policy: Communicate policy to those who must follow it, or implement it. Design validation: Confirmation that the design meets the specifications and target requirements. Discrete value: A value that can be counted, e.g. the number of defects. Dispersion of data: The distribution of data in a chart around the central tendency of the chart. The central tendency is where most of the data appears. (See Unit 9.7.) Dispose of: Get rid of. Document: As a verb, the word document means to record something in writing. Downstream: The terms downstream, midstream, and upstream indicate where something stands in the production process - upstream being nearer to the beginning of the process and downstream being nearer to the point of sale. E Effect-factor check: Used to see if the effects or results of operations – the quality characteristics of the products – satisfy standards. Emergency actions are taken to eliminate the immediate phenomena, or visible signs of a problem, before investigating the causes, e.g. stop non-conforming products being made. Equipment maintenance: A generic term for activities like inspection, adjusting parts, replacing material, and carrying out repairs in non-conforming sections. Evaluation items: The specific items that are evaluated in order to judge whether activities are going as planned or not. Examination items: The features in a product that are examined or inspected. External quality assurance: Activities that will convince the customer of product quality. F Facility life-cycle cost: The entire costs incurred during the lifetime of a facility and its equipment, from the start of operation to the point of scrapping. A Roadmap to Quality 5 Glossary Glossary.qxd 3/10/05 12:25 PM Page 6 Factor analysis: A statistical procedure that seeks to explain a certain phenomenon in terms of the behavior of a set of predictive factors. Failure: In the context of maintenance this refers to the loss of facility or equipment functions, or of those functions that are required under given conditions over a prescribed period of time. FIFO (first-in, first-out) storage: Usually used with inventories where the first items put into the store are the first taken out to be used, to prevent items aging. Fixed-point method: A method used to determine when to place a purchase order. In this method if the inventory falls to a pre-determined level, then a purchase order for a fixed amount will be placed. FMEA (failure, mode and effects analysis): A technique for analyzing the types of failure of constituent parts (failure-phenomena) and their effects on higher items (e.g. facilities, equipment machines, tools, parts, and systems). It identifies incomplete designs and latent defects. Fraction defective: The proportion of minor defects. FTA method (failure tree analysis): A technique used to analyze the root causes, and ratios of failures by tracing back events and developing a tree-like figure. G Given margin: Fixed distance beyond a point, or between two values or points. H His...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2013 for the course MKT marketing taught by Professor Anamika during the Spring '12 term at Punjab Engineering College.

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