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Unformatted text preview: ri (organising), Seiton (keeping
things neat), Seiso (cleaning), Seiketsu (cleanliness), Shukanka (make cleanliness a habit).
(See Unit 6.2.)
5W1H: These are the questions: who does what, when, where, why and how? These
questions must be answered in standardizing instructions, writing reports and preparing
plans. They may also be asked in investigations. A
Abnormality: Anything that emerges in the production process that does not meet the
predetermined criteria governing the process. It need not be a defect. It should however
always be investigated. An abnormality may also be described as something that turns out
different from the plans, or different from other similar products – unexpected features in a
product or unexpected results in a process.
Action limit is the limit represented by the highest or lowest value in a quality control chart.
If the actual values fall outside these limits, a correction in the process is required and/or
the cause of the change in the process must be determined. This may also refer to an
arbitrarily defined limit (either by management or workers) and not only to a statistically
After-sales field feedback: Information received about a product after it has been sold.
Annual management policy: This is derived from the mid-term and long-term plans. It
presents, in an official document, the company’s targets for the fiscal year, with concrete
guidelines for achieving these in important areas such as sales, design and development,
production, personnel administration, quality and services.
Aptitude test: Used to predict a person’s ability to learn certain skills.
Attendance rate: Ratio of the number of employees at work to the number required.
Authority: Authority is where someone has been officially given the right to do something,
to make a decision, or to give instructions. Responsibility is where someone is given the duty
of carrying out a task or seeing that it is carried out. Authority and responsibility often go
together but not always.
Automatic controller and recorder: An instrument or component that controls and records
A Roadmap to Quality 2 Glossary Glossary.qxd 3/10/05 12:25 PM Page 3 an operation automatically. These are commonly installed on modern machines to ease
manufacturing operations as well as to provide electronic data collection. B
Base material: Major raw material or composites used in the initial production process of
manufacturing a product.
Boundary samples of a product show the limits of acceptable quality. There are two types
of boundary samples: one is the limit of a non-defective unit and the other is the limit of a
defective unit. Boundary samples are usually prepared for items that have to be inspected
physically by taste, touch, sight, hearing or smell, without any measuring devices, e.g. a
piece of cloth showing the limit of the color for non-defective units. C
Calibration period: The validity period for accurate usage of an instrument from the date
Cause-factor check: Identifies the root problem when errors or abnormalities appear.
Characteristic diagram: Shows the relation between a quality characteristic and the
factor/s effecting it.
Characteristic quality: Main feature/s of a product or system or service by which customers
will normally identify its quality.
Characteristic value: The values defined as the master data of a characteristic.
Check items: The main stages or critical points in a work process that are checked to make
sure that it conforms to the standards. To distinguish check items and control items we can
say that check items are factors that seem to have a particularly strong effect on work
results, while control items are results that are checked to see if jobs are performed
according to plans and targets. (See also Control items.)
Claim: A claim is where a customer seeks compensation, repair or replacement of a
defective product that has a warranty, or likewise for a service; a complaint is where they
express dissatisfaction with a product or service but may or may not demand compensation.
Claim handling rule: A document which clearly describes the in-house procedures for
handling product-related claims, and for repairing defective goods.
Complaint (See Claim.)
Confirm results: Check that results are ok.
Continuous supply method: Bringing items continuously into the inventory without
disruptions, and based on the production plan. A Roadmap to Quality 3 Glossary Glossary.qxd 3/10/05 12:25 PM Page 4 Control: Watch or monitor how a job, process or operation is going.
Control characteristics represent process results from which we learn the control status of
Control chart: Used to determine whether a process is in a stable condition or not. It
consists of a central line (CL) and upper and lower control limits (UCL and LCL). (See Unit
Control criteria: A range of permissible limits in measuring the acceptable level of quality
of a product.
Control designation criteria: An assigned range of limits for the establishment of an
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