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Unformatted text preview: Classify
standards on a company-wide basis to prevent them being duplicated or
contradicting each other. (See Text 8.4.)
Figure 8.1a Control criteria for company standards Classification Class symbol Contents Person responsible
for establishing Distributed to Product standard Figure 8.1b Operations standard
5. In drafting the standards make sure that:
a. The instructions are such that, when followed, non-conforming products will not be
b. They are easy to implement.
c. They are as simple as possible. Too much documentation lowers productivity.
d. They indicate procedures for practical actions.
e. They include methods and criteria to evaluate the quality of the products.
f. They make clear the scope of responsibility, and the authority for implementation
and revision. Authority should be delegated as much as possible.
g. They optimise the whole production process, and not just parts of it. Prepare work instructions
6. A work instruction is a clear, simple written description of the daily production plans and
related information, based on the standards, that is given to the employees before they
begin operations. It is always a good idea to meet employees before they begin an
operation and go over the work instructions with them. In any case, employees should
always read them before they begin operations.
7. A work instruction specifies who should do what, when, where, why and how (5W1H). It
should include: Unit 8 - Standardization 6 A Roadmap to Quality UNIDO unit 8.qxd 3/10/05 1:24 PM Page 7 a. The names of the employees who will do the work.
b. The machinery and material they will use.
c. The method they will use.
d. The environment in which they will do it.
In TQM this is referred to as 4M1E (men, machinery, material, method, environment).
Include columns for the results of operations: the hours worked, the values or quantity of
items completed, the quality characteristic values, and any abnormalities or defects.
These columns may then be included in operation reports.
8. A work instruction may be written on:
a. A work instruction sheet.
b. A bulletin board.
c. An illuminating board (showing the operation number, and key points of operation in
automated manufacturing lines).
d. An operation slip (to accompany individual products, or each lot of products).
9. Always include the numbers of the operation standards in the work instruction, since the
detailed work methods are given in the operation standards, and it may be necessary to
refer to these.
Figure 8.1c Work instruction sheet A
Figure 8.1d Work instruction sheet B
10. The box on page 8 presents a variety of typical manufacturing standards. Discussion
The following questions ask you to think about how the ideas in the text could be applied in
your company. Some of the ideas may not be relevant to you. Concentrate on those that are
relevant. Keep notes of your conclusions – you will need them to prepare your action plan
afterwards. Where appropriate ask yourself the RADAR questions.
Note: Always include in your discussion any figures referred to in the text, if you feel these
are relevant to your company.
a. Parag. 2: How does an operation standard ensure that an operation is always done
to the highest level of quality?
b. Parag. 3: Look at the list of possible categories of information that could be on an
operation standard. Think of some operations in your department and discuss these
i. If you already have standards, which of these categories are already included?
ii. Which would you add to your standards?
iii. If you do not yet have written standards, which categories would you put in new
iv. Are there any additional categories that you might add for any of these operations?
c. Parag. 4: Apply the RADAR questions to these guidelines for introducing standards.
d. Parag. 5. How important do you think each of these guidelines would be for your
A Roadmap to Quality 7 Unit 8 - Standardization UNIDO unit 8.qxd 3/10/05 1:24 PM Page 8 e. Parags. 6, 7, 8 and 9: Do you already give written work instructions to your
employees? If yes, how effective is your system? How could it be improved? If not,
what benefits do you think such a system would bring to your workplace?
f. Apply the RADAR questions to these proposals for using work instructions.
g. Look at Figure 8.1c, the work instruction sheet. Prepare a similar sheet for one or
two of the operations in your own company.
h. Parag 10. Which of the standards in Box 1 do you already have? Which would it be
useful to have? Box 1 Typical manufacturing standards
a. b. c.
i. Product standards define the quality requirements thata product must satisfy. They specify a realistic
quality level, given the current level of technical skill in the workplace. They are established by senior
Raw material standards specify the raw materials that are used to produce goods that will meet the
product standards. They should:
i. Make clear the quality characteristics of raw materi...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2013 for the course MKT marketing taught by Professor Anamika during the Spring '12 term at Punjab Engineering College.
- Spring '12