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Unformatted text preview: You should respond quickly when they report a defect to you:
a. Make sure you have a clear idea of the situation and the actual products involved.
b. Check how the defect occurred.
c. Investigate how far the defect affects other processes.
d. Find out to what extent other departments are involved, and whether notices need to
be sent to them.
e. Decide on and prioritise the countermeasures to be taken.
f. Decide whether more information is needed.
g. Quickly send a defect memo to any related departments informing them of the
defect and asking them for their cooperation with concrete countermeasures. Check
that they have received the memo. If countermeasures are requested, a report should
be forwarded quickly to the person in charge of implementing the countermeasures.
h. The defect memo to related departments should include the following:
i. Issuing department (issue number, date of issue, issuing section, and person
issuing the report).
ii. Model, article name, date the defect occurred and the manufacturing process in
which it occurred.
A Roadmap to Quality 21 Unit 3 - Managers: Managing Systems UNIDO unit 3.qxd 3/10/05 i. 12:51 PM Page 22 iii. Clear details of the defect and related information – describe it plainly using
iv. The countermeasures that have been requested.
v. A list of the departments to which the report is being sent.
Carry out a full investigation of the causes – but remember that sometimes the first
thing to do is to dispose of the defective products. Figure 3.7a Handling system for external complaint Deal with defective products
4. Defective products have to be dealt with. There are a number of different actions that
should be taken, depending on the circumstances and the nature of the defect:
a. Put someone in charge of dealing with the defective products so that they will not be
b. Decide quickly how to deal with the defective products - to dispose of them, rework
them or take some special measures.
c. When life or safety-related defects occur, authorise the quality assurance department
to stop shipment so that defective products do not reach customers.
d. If investigation of the cause reveals that there is no problem in market quality, allow
shipments to continue.
e. When there are defects that could lead to serious claims against the company, deal
with the products first before fully investigating the cause.
f. If the products have already been delivered to the customers, assess the seriousness
and urgency of the situation, consult the customer, and take active measures to deal
with the matter. Gather information about the causes of the defect
5. To identify the causes of defects, you will need to gather all the information you can. A
systematic way of doing this is to ask the 4M questions – is it caused by man, machine,
method, or materials:
a. Are the operators following the operation standards?
b. Have equipment, machine, or tools been changed?
c. Were operators or inspectors replaced during the manufacturing process or when the
products were in the lot? If not, was the method of operation, the inspection
procedure, or the test equipment changed?
d. Have any changes taken place in the manufacturing process due to changes in
materials and parts? Remember that materials and parts from different makers may
differ slightly even though it is claimed they are the same and that they conform to
the same standard – this is because machining conditions or quality may differ.
Figure 3.7b Process analysis Check that the causes of the defect are being properly analysed
and dealt with
6. To check that the causes of the defect are being being properly analysed and dealt with:
a. Check the accuracy of the defect report - go to the workplace and examine the
product. Unit 3 - Managers: Managing Systems 22 A Roadmap to Quality UNIDO unit 3.qxd 3/10/05 12:51 PM Page 23 b. Use stratification (by defects, by model, by manufacturing process, by operator, by
time zone, etc.) and other statistical techniques to conduct the analysis. (Stratification
is one of the 7 QC tools; see Text 11.3.4.)
c. Do reproducibility experiments to see if these causes produce the same defects. (This
is an experiment that reproduces a failure in order to see how the failure occurred.)
d. When the causes have been properly analysed, plan and implement
countermeasures to prevent recurrence of the defect.
e. Check the results of these countermeasures.
f. If necessary review and revise the technical and operational standards and any other
standards related to them.
g. Check processes that are similar to the deficient process and, if a problem is found,
review the entire process and re-train the operators.
Figure 3.7c System diagram for countermeasures against deficiencies
Figure 3.7d Analysis of causes Discussion
The following questions ask you to think about how the ideas in the text could be applied in
your company. Some of these ideas may not be relevant to you. Concentrate on those that
are relevant. Keep notes of your conclusions – you will need them to prepare your action
plan afterwards. Where appropriate ask yoursel...
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- Spring '12