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b. Effect-factor check: Check if the effects (or results) of the operations – the quality
characteristics of the products - satisfy the standards. When abnormal quality
characteristic values appear, find out the cause. If necessary, investigate the
operation conditions (e.g. raw materials, equipment or target quality) and revise the
7. The methods for carrying out these checks should be stated clearly in the operation
standard sheet or QC process chart. The main points to decide are:
a. Who is to check what, how frequently, where, and how.
b. The sampling and measuring devices to be used.
c. The handling methods to use when abnormalities occur.
d. The boundary samples to be used, if these are needed.
When the checks have been completed write up reports of what has been done, and
have these confirmed by supervisors or managers.
8. Use control charts to provide ongoing monitoring of the process check points. This will
help to stabilise the manufacturing process, and show where further improvements may
Figure 8.2a QC Process chart Discussion
The following questions ask you to think about how the ideas in the text could be applied in
your company. Some of the ideas may not be relevant to you. Concentrate on those that are
relevant. Keep notes of your conclusions – you will need them to prepare your action plan
afterwards. Where appropriate ask yourself the RADAR questions.
Note: Always include in your discussion any figures referred to in the text, if you feel these
are relevant to your company. Unit 8 - Standardization 10 A Roadmap to Quality UNIDO unit 8.qxd 3/10/05 1:24 PM Page 11 Make sure that employeees are following the standards
a. Parag. 2 emphasises the need to take a systematic approach to checking if
employees are following the standards. Use the best information you have at the
moment to suggest answers to the following questions:
i. What are the total number of operations in your department or company?
ii. How many of these operations have standards been established for?
iii. What percentage is this?
iv. In what percentage of these operations would you say that standards are being
v. What would you say are the main reasons they are not being followed?
vi. What would be appropriate actions to take in some of these cases?
vii. Are you satisfied with this percentage? Can it be improved?
viii.Are there any problems that make it difficult to improve this percentage? How
could you solve them?
b. Apply the RADAR questions to these suggestions for making sure that employees
follow the standards.
Keep the standards up-to-date
c. Parags. 3 and 4 describe what to do to keep standards up to date. Discuss the
i. How often do out-of-control events occur in your department or company?
ii. How many of these occur even when you are sure the standards are being
iii. What are typical changes that you may have in conditions related to an
operation, e.g. in raw materials, equipment or target quality? What effects can
these have on operations?
iv. How do you go about changing the operations because of these changes in
conditions? How do you make sure that employees carry out the new operations
v. How often do you review your standards? Who is in charge of revising them, or
who would you put in charge?
d. Parag. 4 contains a list of notes that might be put in a revised standard. Which of
these might you include in some of your revised standards?
e. Parags. 3 and 4: Apply the RADAR questions to these guidelines.
Use the standards to check operations
f. Parag. 5:
i. How often do you check that operations have been carried out correctly? What
methods do you use to do the checks?
ii. How often do you find that operations have not been carried out correctly? What
are typical things that have not been done correctly? What are typical causes?
iii. What do you do when you find that operations have not been carried out
correctly? Do you often have to change the operations? How do you get the
employees to change the way they carry out the operations? A Roadmap to Quality 11 Unit 8 - Standardization UNIDO unit 8.qxd 3/10/05 1:24 PM Page 12 iv. If you have written standards, how often are the results of an operation different
from what the standards say they should be? What are some typical examples of
such differing quality characteristics? And what are typical causes?
v. Have you got criteria for actions to take when such abnormalities appear? If not,
what criteria might you use?
g. Parags. 6, 7 and 8. Apply the RADAR questions to these guidelines for using the
standards to check that operations have been carried out properly. Include Table 8.1
QC Process Chart in your discussion. Action plan
Take the ideas you have found useful in the text, and in your discussion, and present them in
a well-structured action plan for introducing improvements in your company. You might like
to follow the 6-Point Structure. Alternatively you may choose to prepare a larger action plan
after you have discussed several more texts. Unit...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2013 for the course MKT marketing taught by Professor Anamika during the Spring '12 term at Punjab Engineering College.
- Spring '12