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Unformatted text preview: What is the progress ratio for implementation plans?
This is an important point. However if only the progress ratio is considered as an
important control item, it becomes difficult to judge whether target values have been
achieved, even if the control items themselves have been achieved completely. Unit 1 - Chief Executive Officer: Managing Policy 16 A Roadmap to Quality UNIDO unit 1.qxd 3/10/05 12:42 PM Page 17 Policies and target values must therefore be included as control items. (The progress
ratio is the percentage of a task or process that is completed in relation to the
complete task or process.)
9. It is impossible to check everything. Select important, high contribution implementation
items (items that make an important contribution to achieving the targets) as control
items. Always review the usefulness of the control items you have chosen. If you find they
are no longer useful, revise them.
10. Note the distinction between control items and control characteristics.
a. “Control items” are measurable items used to judge whether or not tasks assigned to
departments or sections or individuals have been carried out; if not, appropriate
action should be taken.
b. “Control characteristics” are characteristics used to judge whether machines, tools,
facilities, equipment, processes, and systems are in good condition and for taking
action when they are not. Control graphs
11. Use control graphs to check the progress of implementation plans. These are time-series
graphs (graphs that show changes over a period of time) in which action limits are
entered. The action limit is the limit represented by the highest or lowest value in a
quality control chart. If the actual values fall outside these limits, a correction in the
process is required and/or the cause of the change in the process must be determined.
Data giving the monthly, or daily, achievements for each control item is plotted on the
graph. Any data that falls outside the action limits indicates a failure to achieve the
implementation scheduled for that point in time. When this happens action should
always be taken. (For more detail on control charts see Text 9.8 in Unit 9.)
12. Use the targets of the implementation plans as action limits, but allow them a certain
latitude – a little more or a little less. In other words, the target values (the desired
outcomes of a process) plus or minus a little are the action limits. The so-called
“banana curve” that construction companies use for schedule management is an
example of this. In many cases, target values are allowed to have a latitude of +/- 1:5%
or +/- 10%.
Figure 1.5c Table for monitoring the progress of implementation plans
(See Text 9.8 for a more detailed description of control charts.) Procedure for dealing with abnormalities
13. The term “abnormality” is normally used in TQM to refer to problems, or to indications
of hidden or potential problems, but it can also refer to any unexpected outcome. In the
context of policy implementation an abnormality can be any result that was not planned
– it may be something that has not been done at all, has not been done properly, or has
not had the expected result. A Roadmap to Quality 17 Unit 1 - Chief Executive Officer: Managing Policy UNIDO unit 1.qxd 3/10/05 12:42 PM Page 18 14. There are three important actions to take when abnormalities emerge:
a. Emergency measures: eliminate the outward effects of the abnormality.
b. Recurrence-prevention measures: eliminate the causes.
c. Fundamental measures: eliminate the root causes.
15. To detect and deal with abnormalities:
a. Specify the control items and prepare a corresponding number of control graphs.
b. Collect data every month (or even daily) and plot it accurately on the control graph.
Compare the plotted data with the action limits.
c. Look for any signs of abnormalities, and confirm at once that they are abnormalities.
To do this, break processes down into their different component processes.
d. Do not ignore any abnormalities. Assess them accurately. Don’t just look for an
excuse and decide that the situation “cannot be helped”.
e. Enter data about any abnormalities on forms which can then be used as abnormality
reports and issue these reports to those concerned. Record everything accurately – do
not hide or distort any of the abnormalities.
f. Take any emergency action required right away – it is important to get rid of the
outward effects of problems at an early stage.
g. Analyze processes using problem-solving procedures and other means in order to
establish the underlying causes. For this reason it is essential to improve problemresolution skills, especially for sub-section chiefs, team leaders, work site managers,
and supervisors. (See Unit 9 Problem Solving.)
h. Take actions to eliminate the underlying causes that were established in the
i. Record any actions taken to deal with abnormalities in the abnormality reports –
both the emergency actions taken to deal with the immediate problems and the
recurrence-prevention measures taken to deal...
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- Spring '12