Unformatted text preview: rselves to predicting problems that can result from opening and closing the
car door. This can be narrowed down even further to problems that can result from
opening and closing the door when there are children in a car. This procedure enables
employees to take a more concrete focus, and thus makes predictions easier.
6. FMEA (failure mode and effects analysis) uses this approach to predict problems that
could arise with product components. FMEA is widely employed as a design method for
increasing reliability. It attempts to predict problems by focusing on specific units in the
manufacturing process. Simply list the types of problems that could occur within a
restricted range, predict the occasions in which they could emerge, and assess the
chances of them occurring and their possible impact. In this way we narrow down the
points that may need to be acted on. A Roadmap to Quality 39 Unit 9 - Problem solving 05-87581_unit 9.qxd 09/09/2005 11:55 Page 40 Discussion
The following questions ask you to think about how the ideas in the text could be applied in
your company. Some of the ideas may not be relevant to you. Concentrate on what is
relevant. Keep notes of your conclusions – you will need them to prepare your action plan
afterwards. Where appropriate ask yourself the RADAR questions.
Note: Always include in your discussion any figures referred to in the text, if you feel these
are relevant to your company.
a. Parag. 1: Give one or two examples of occasions when employees in your company
have anticipated problems.
b. Parag. 1: Give examples of some factors that could lead to problems in your
workplace and that alert employees could spot. What kind of action would normally
be taken to prevent these leading to problems?
c. Parag. 2. Which of these four types of countermeasures would be appropriate for
your examples in question a. above?
d. Parag. 3: Would you say that your employees are always aware of the possibility of
problems arising? If not, how could you encourage them to be so?
e. Parags 4, 5 and 6: Apply FMEA to predicting typical problems that could arise in
your production process. Action plan
Take the ideas you have found useful in the text, and in your discussion, and present them in
a well-structured action plan for introducing improvements in your company. You might like
to follow the 6-Point Structure. Unit 9 - Problem solving 40 A Roadmap to Quality 05-87581_unit 9.qxd 09/09/2005 11:55 Page 41 Test
Answer these questions using only the information given in the text. For each question one,
two or all three answers may be correct. Tick the answer or answers you think are correct for
each question. Each question carries 3 points – you get one point for each correct answer
that you tick, and one point for each wrong answer that you do not tick.
9.1 Recognising abnormalities
Abnormalities can be defined as:
a. Deviations from abnormal conditions.
c. Deviations from normal conditions.
Problems occur when abnormalities:
b. Are not noticed.
c. Are ignored.
Abnormalities may be:
a. Discovered by inspectors during the inspection process.
b. Discovered by employees conducting their own inspection.
c. Indicated by control charts.
In inspections the present values are examined against:
a. Target values.
b. Standard values.
c. Normal values.
Dispersion may be caused by:
b. Control charts.
When an employee thinks that a machine sounds different s/he should:
a. Keep quiet about it.
b. Report it.
c. Wait for a day or two.
9.2 Reporting abnormalities
To encourage employees to develop a habit of reporting abnormalities managers should:
a. Explain that if managers do not know all the unpleasant facts the employees
themselves will suffer.
b. Establish a relationship of trust with employees.
c. Give concrete instructions that even minor abnormalities should be reported.
Very minor abnormalities should be reported:
c. Never. A Roadmap to Quality 41 Unit 9 - Problem solving 05-87581_unit 9.qxd 9. 10. 11. 09/09/2005 11:55 Page 42 Abnormality reports should be delivered in writing:
The three-point procedure to carry out before reporting the abnormality is:
a. Confirm the problem, select the report format, fill it in precisely.
b. Get a fellow employee to confirm the problem on the spot as quickly as possible.
c. Confirm the problem on the spot in a realistic way.
Reports that are aimed at preventing abnormalities causing further problems may
a. Suspending production.
b. Freezing shipments.
c. Isolating abnormal products. 9.3 Emergency actions with non-conforming products
12. When abnormalities produce non-conforming products, the first priority is to:
a. Find out what is causing the problem.
b. Stop more non-conforming products being made.
c. Remove the abnormalities.
13. To prevent abnormalities escalating, decide in advance:
a. Who is in charge.
b. Who is responsible for taking countermeasures.
c. What countermeasures should...
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