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Unformatted text preview: 8 - Standardization 12 A Roadmap to Quality UNIDO unit 8.qxd 3/10/05 1:24 PM Page 13 8.3 Educate and train your employees to follow the standards Introduction 1. Standardization will greatly improve quality in your company - but only if employees always follow the standards. There are three reasons why they may not follow them: a. They do not know them: this is a problem of knowledge. b. They cannot do the operations correctly: this is a problem of skill. This can be a reason why defective products occur even when the operator follows the standard. c. They will not follow them: this is a problem of motivation. 2. To ensure that your employees have the necessary knowledge, skills and motivation, you should: a. Educate them in the value and use of standards. b. Provide the technical training needed to carry out the operations. c. Provide training in quality consciousness. d. Audit operations periodically. Educate employees in the value and use of standards 3. Educate employees in the value and use of standards so that they will: a. Be able to read and understand the standards and work instructions. b. Recognise the importance of standardisation in maintaining quality, and realise that operations must always be carried out according to the standards. c. Understand the quality level that is to be reached in the manufacturing process. d. Understand the methods to be used to confirm that these quality levels are reached, and the measures to be taken when they are not. Provide technical training 4. If a system of standardization is to be fully effective, employees must of course be able to carry out the standardized operations. These operations, however, may require technical skills that they do not have – nor can they be left to pick up these skills on their own. Managers should look carefully at the standards and systematically identify which skills are needed, and to what level: a. Define three to five levels of skills. b. Assess the current skills that operators have. c. Set the target level of skills that they should reach. d. Make clear to employees the methods that will be used to evaluate the new skills e. Begin training. f. Retrain operators whenever operation methods are changed. 5. Training methodology. There are two ways to provide technical training: on-the-job training (OJT) during operations, and off-the-job training (OFT) before and after operations. OFT can be used to provide training in practical skills, technical education, and awareness training. OFT can include workshops and group discussions, as well as A Roadmap to Quality 13 Unit 8 - Standardization UNIDO unit 8.qxd 3/10/05 1:24 PM Page 14 the more traditional lectures. Standardize the methods of training, and always use common, everyday terminology. When training is completed, check the level that the employees have achieved. If necessary carry out re-training, and record the results. Figure 8.3a Formatting the results of education and training Title of Standard Standard Date of No. establishment and revision Part Date Name Key Evaluation revised education of points of provided operator education and training 6. Benefits. By providing operators with systematic and continuous training in operations, you will ensure that equipment is used better, that quality is maintained and improved, that productivity is raised, and that safety is improved. (See Unit 12 for more detailed guidelines on education and training.) Provide training in quality consciousness 7. If employees are to make a maximum contribution to quality, they need to be trained in quality consciousness. They should become familiar with several key quality concepts: a. Recognising quality characteristics. Train employees to recognize the important quality characteristics of their products and job procedures, and to be committed to producing only quality products. They should be aware that defective products decrease work efficiency, increase costs, and break delivery promises - and ultimately destroy customer confidence. b. The person in the next process is your customer. They should think about the employee in the next production process as their customer - think of how the quality of their work may effect the quality of that person’s work. c. Tidiness and cleanliness. Consciousness of quality is also important at the level of tidiness and cleanliness. Employees should always follow the 5S (from their Japanese names – see Text 6.2): i. Seiri (organizing): separate necessary and unnecessary items and eliminate the latter. ii. Seiton (keeping things neat): store necessary items in their designated place so that they can be easily found. iii. Seiso (cleaning): remove dirt and rubbish from the workplace. iv. Seiketsu (cleanliness): clean the workplace systematically and prevent dirt recurring. v. Shukanka (make cleanliness a habit): train employees in these practices and attitudes so that they become a habit. Unit 8 - Standardization 14 A Roadmap to Quality UNIDO unit 8.qxd 3/10/05 1:24 PM Page 15 8. There are...
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