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KENNEDY YEARS, 1960-1963 **NONVIOLENT PROTEST American life Civil Rights: King, integration, and nonviolence (Gandhi) 1.Sit-in Tactic: Greensboro (1960); SNCC (1961) 3. 1963: Birmingham & March on Washington D.C -American Society was still a segregated society -JFK President less than three years -Confronted with a time that segregation is challenged -Kennedy a prisoner of American politics -Martin Luther King, Jr. -Program he advocates is integration, looking for a color-blind society -All ethnic types will mix together -Tactic used was nonviolent resistance -Gandhi said, if you have a moral cause, the way to affirm it was not to adopt the behavior of the oppressors -if necessary, break the law (segregation was the law, you can break an immoral law) -if you fight violence with violence, you have more violence -Greensboro, NC -whites only lunch counter, asked to be served -subject to verbal abuse, threats -these young people were risking a lot! Took courage—could be beaten up or killed by a white supremacist -This tactic was picked up by another organization, SNCC: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee -end of 1961, more than 3,000 SNCC members arrested, many beaten -college people took the lead in this! -Yes, MLK is a visible, national leader, but this is a grassroots operation—reflecting MLK’s philosophies, but not directed by him -passively sit in those place, and integrate them with our bodies -Congress on Racial Equality: CORE -How do we force the government to do something? -Integrate interstate bus travel—out of a single state’s jurisdiction
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIST 57182 taught by Professor Mcfarland,gerald during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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