Es 133 Chpter 6 Notes - Es 133 Chapter 6 Notes Moisture...

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Es 133 Chapter 6 Notes Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation o Water is the only substance that exists in the atmosphere as a solid, liquid and gas. o Ice is composed of water molecules that are held together by mutual molecular attractions. o Snowflakes reflect the molecular structure of water. o The density of water is actually greatest at 4 0 C. o Ice must absorb heat to melt. As a liquid, water molecules slide past each other. o As water absorbs heat, the molecules at the surface go fast enough to become water vapor. o One calorie is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 0 C. o Latent heat (“hidden” heat) is energy absorbed or released during change of state. o The amount of heat that is absorbed during evaporation is called the latent heat of vaporization. o The amount of heat that is released during condensation is called the latent heat of condensation. o When water vapor condenses to form cloud droplets, latent heat of condensation is released, warming the surrounding air. o Sublimation is the conversion of a solid to a gas without passing through the liquid phase. o Dry ice does not melt, it sublimates. o Deposition is the opposite of sublimation—it is the conversion of a vapor directly to a solid. o Humidity is the term for the amount of water vapor in the air. o Vapor pressure is the part of the total atmospheric pressure due to water-vapor content. o When a gas has reached saturation, it can no longer hold any more water vapor. o The amount of water vapor needed to saturate the air is a function of the air temperature. o The relative humidity is the ratio of the air’s actual water-vapor content compared with the amount of water vapor required for saturation at that temperature (and pressure). o Dew-point is the temperature to which a parcel of air would need to be cooled to reach saturation. o Higher dew point temperatures indicate higher humidities. o The instrument used to measure humidity is the hygrometer.
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