Es 133 Chapter 5 Notes - Es 133 Chapter 5 Notes The...

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Es 133 Chapter 5 Notes The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, and Temperature o Weather is a term that refers to the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place. o Climate is the aggregate weather over a long period of time. o Most important elements of weather are: o Temperature o Humidity o Cloudiness o Precipitation o Air pressure o Wind speed and direction o Nitrogen and oxygen make up about 99% of dry air. o The variable components in the atmosphere include water vapor, dust particles, and ozone. o Water vapor makes up a maximum of only 4% of the atmosphere, but is important in transferring heat from one place to another. o The movements of the atmosphere are sufficient to keep a large quantity of solid and liquid particles suspended within it. o Some aerosols include sea salts from breaking waves, fine soil blown into the atmosphere, smoke and soot from fires, pollen and microorganisms, ash and dust from volcanic eruptions and more. o Aerosols can affect the formation of clouds, absorb, reflect and scatter incoming solar radiation… o Ozone (O 3 ) is another important component of the atmosphere. o Ozone is created when UV light strikes an O 2 molecule, breaking it apart. These single oxygen molecules then collide with an O 2 molecule and they bond. o Ozone occurs high in the atmosphere and functions to absorb ultraviolet radiation emitted by the Sun. o The levels of ozone in the atmosphere have been depleted, due to the release of CFCs into the atmosphere. o Atmospheric pressure is the weight of the air above. o One half of the atmosphere lies below an altitude of 5.6 km (3.5 mi, or 18,480 ft). o The temperature decreases with increasing altitude in the lower part of the atmosphere. o The atmosphere is subdivided on the basis of temperature. o The lower part of the atmosphere is the troposphere, where the temperature decreases with increasing altitude. o The environmental lapse rate is the temperature decrease in the troposphere. o A radiosonde is an instrument package that is attached to a balloon and transmits data by radio as it ascends through the atmosphere.
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