ES 133 Chapter 2 Notes - ES 133 Chapter 2 The Ocean Floor o...

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ES 133 Chapter 2 The Ocean Floor o Oceanography is an interdisciplinary science that draws on the methods and knowledge of geology, chemistry, physics, and biology to study all aspects of the world ocean. o About 71% of the Earth is covered by oceans and marginal seas. o Almost 81% of the Southern Hemisphere is covered by the oceans, which is 20% more than the Northern Hemisphere. o Between latitudes 45 0 N and 70 0 N, there is actually more land than water. o The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest ocean (average depth of 4300 m or 14,000 ft). o The Atlantic Ocean is about half the size of the Pacific Ocean and has an average depth of 3900 m (12,900 ft). o The Indian Ocean has about the same average depth (3890 m or 12,800 ft) as the Atlantic Ocean but is slightly smaller. o The Arctic Ocean is about 7% of the size of the Pacific Ocean and is only a little more than ¼ as deep as the rest of the oceans o Bathymetry is the measurement of ocean depths and the charting of the shape or topography of the ocean floor. o A simple echo sounder transmits a ping and measures the return time to determine depth at particular points. o A high-resolution multibeam instrument uses hull-mounted sound sources that send out a fan of sound, then record reflections from the seafloor through a set of narrowly focused receivers aimed at different angles. o Only about 5% of the seafloor has been mapped in detail. o A seismic reflection profile is used to view the rock structure beneath the surficial sediments. o Gravity attracts water toward regions where massive seafloor features occur. o Therefore, mountains and ridges produce elevated areas on the ocean surface, and canyons and trenches cause slight depressions.
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  • Fall '13
  • Puckett
  • Atlantic Ocean

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