2011 Slide Set III Spr08

2011 Slide Set III Spr08 - SLIDE SET III OUTLINE UNIT I:...

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I. Neurulation A. Introduction B. Example: neurulation 1. frog 2. chick 3. spinal column and spinal cord C. Amniote embryos 1. amniotes 2. extra-embryonic membranes a. birds, reptiles b. humans SLIDE SET III OUTLINE UNIT I: Animal Development (cont’d)
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II. Morphogenic mechanisms A. Cell movement/rearrangement 1. convergent extension 2. invagination, ingression, involution (e.g., gastrulatin) 3. changes in cell shape (e.g., neurulation) B. Cytoplasmic determinants (again!) 1. overview 2. axes of symmetry in amphibians (e.g., gray crescent, cortical rotation, cell potency) 3. bicoid gene in Drosophila C. Cell communication (again!) 1. Holtfreter’s work 2. 3. induction D. Pattern formation 1. 2. SLIDE SET III OUTLINE (cont’d.) UNIT I: Animal Development
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____________________: continued cell movement and cell differentiation result in the development of organs and organ systems Example: Neurulation and the development of the ______________________ in frogs DEVELOPMENT PATTERN: 1. fertilization, 2. cleavage, 3. Gastrulation 4. ___________
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1. Neurulation of ______________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Notochord = a skeletal rod in chordates formed from ______________ ______________ FROG
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Fig. 47.14 2. ____________________________ i.e., a thickening of ECTODERM caused by changes in cell shape
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Fig. 47.14 3. ____________________________ ______________________________ -changes in cell shape and adhesion cause uplifting of cells Neural groove
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Fig. 47.14 4. __________________ forms once neural folds meet -eventually becomes the _________ ______________________ Neural groove
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Fig. 47.19 CHANGES IN CELL SHAPE DURING NEURAL TUBE FORMATION __________________ _____________ helps elongate cells ___________________ ______________ causes cells to become wedge shaped ____________________
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Fig. 47.14 5. Paired __________ flank neural tube: Somites = paired blocks of _______________ cells extending serially along neural tube - ________________________ - mesoderm extensions split (body cavity) Neural groove
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Scanning Election Micrographs Shown are scanning electron micrographs of a chick embryo during neurulation. Neural fold
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Fig. 47.14 5. ____________________ ______________________ ______________________ - these ___________ to form other cell types: e.g., peripheral nerves, pigment cells, teeth, skull bones Neural groove
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THE COMPONENTS OF NEURULATION Neural groove (= __________ origin) START HERE (= ___________)
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Figs. 47.10, 47.13 and 47.15 Blastoderm (no “blastula” per se ) Early embryonic stages in a chick embryo 3 germ layers establshed by gastrulation NEURULATION: Blastoderm edges pinch inward and form a 3-layered “tube”on top of the yolk, then neurulation proceeds above the notocord (plate, folds, tube, etc.)
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_____________________ give rise to ossification centers where bone is
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO bsc2011 taught by Professor Spears during the Spring '08 term at FSU.

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2011 Slide Set III Spr08 - SLIDE SET III OUTLINE UNIT I:...

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