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2011 Slide Set V Spr08

2011 Slide Set V Spr08 - PROBLEM Given the generality of...

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PROBLEM:  Given the generality of the Central Dogma (replication, transcription & translation), how can a single cell give rise to the diversity of cell types in a multicellular organism? Next:  the cell cycle and cell division QuickTime & and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime& and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime& and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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UNIT II: PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE How are genes and the traits for which they code passed along from parents to offspring? Father and son sisters brothers twins Family Mom and offspring
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SLIDE SET V OUTLINE The Cell Cycle, Mitosis, & Meiosis I. Chromosomes A. Somatic cells are diploid B. Germ cells (gametes) are haploid C. n, 2n D. Karyotypes 1. homologous pairs of chromosomes 2. autosomes 3. sex chromosomes II. The Cell Cycle A. Two components: growth & division B. Functions C. Eukaryotes 1. interphase 2. mitotic phase D. Control of the cell cycle E. Cancer F. Telomeres and cell division
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Slide Set V (cont d) III. Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction A. Stages of meiosis 1. meiosis I 2. meiosis II B. Differences between meiosis and mitosis 1. segregation of alleles C. Meiosis generates genetic variation among gametes 1. independent assortment of chromosomes 2. crossing over
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hromosomes: a quick review Chromatin = genetic material = DNA + proteins Chromosomes are individual packages of chromatin One chromosome = one DNA molecule (+ bound proteins)
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Chromosome numbers in cells Somatic cells (body cell: muscle, nerve, skin, etc.) are diploid : 1. they contain two sets of chromosomes : 1 set from each parent
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Chromosome numbers in cells Somatic cells (body cells) are diploid: 1. they contain two sets of chromosomes: 1 set from each parent e.g. human skin, muscle, liver cells: 46 chromosomes e.g. Toucan: 106 chromosomes
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Chromosome numbers in cells Somatic cells (body cells) are diploid: 1. they contain two sets of chromosomes: 1 set from each parent e.g. human skin, muscle, liver cells: 46 chromosomes e.g. Toucan: 106 chromosomes Gametes : (oocytes or egg cells, and sperm cells) are haploid : 1. they contain one set of chromosomes
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I. Chromosome numbers in cells A. Somatic cells (body cells) are diploid: 1. they contain two sets of chromosomes: 1 set from each parent e.g. human skin, muscle, liver cells: 46 chromosomes e.g. Toucan: 106 chromosomes B. Gametes : (oocytes or egg cells, sperm cells) are haploid: 1. they contain one set of chromosomes e.g. human sperm cell, egg cell: 23 chromosomes e.g. toucan sperm, eggs: 53 chromosomes
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Chromosome numbers in cells Somatic cells (body cells) are diploid: 1. they contain two sets of chromosomes: 1 set from each parent e.g. human skin, muscle, liver cells: 46 chromosomes e.g. Toucan: 106 chromosomes Germ cells (gametes: oocytes or egg cells, sperm cells) are haploid: 1. they contain one set of chromosomes e.g. human sperm cell, egg cell: 23 chromosomes e.g. toucan sperm, eggs: 53 chromosomes # of chromosmes in a set = “n” e.g. human germ cell (egg, sperm) = haploid: n = 23 e.g. human skin, nerve, muscle cell = diploid: 2n = 46
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