2011 Slide Set VI Spr08

2011 Slide Set VI Spr08 - SLIDE SET VI Outline I. Mendel -...

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SLIDE SET VI Outline I. Mendel - A New Theory of Inheritance A. Who was Mendel? B. What did Mendel know? C. Plant breeding II. Mendel's work A. Monohybrid cross B. Interpretation in modern terms C. Quantitative results D. The dihybrid cross E. Summary of Mendel's Rules III. Probability Theory and Patterns of Inheritance A. Definitions B. Rules for probability C. Application to the dihybrid cross The Homunculus vs. pangenesis
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SLIDE SET VI OUTLINE (cont’d.) IV. Extensions of (and exceptions to) Mendel’s rules A. Partial dominance 1. incomplete dominance 2. co-dominance B. More than 2 possible alleles at a locus 1. human ABO blood groups C. Pleiotropy D. Polygenic inheritance 1. epistasis 2. human skin color 3. human eye color
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Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Common pea plant ( Pisum sativum ) http://anthro.palomar.edu/mendel/mendel_1.htm
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Fig. 14.2 Controlled plant breeding
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REASONS FOR MENDEL’S SUCCESS - studied ______ different plant _____________ (or ______) (Table 14.1) - studied “either-or” traits that each had ___ distinct versions (_______) (e.g. white flowers or purple flowers) - started by studying one characteristic at a time 4. Made sure his starting material was ______________ (i.e., when self- fertilized, ONLY the same parental trait showed up in offspring) 1. Used an organism (pea plant) that: - can both ____________________________________ - produces ____________________________ (= seeds) - has a relatively short __________________________ 2. Subjected data to ________________________ analysis 3. Used an organized, systematic (i.e., “scientific”) approach:
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Table 14.1
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Fig 14.3 Mendel’s series of crosses: a monohybrid cross 705 purple 224 white An approximate ______ ratio among F2 offspring Self-fertilize the F1 plants to generate F2 ________ F = “first filial” generation (offspring)
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Same pattern found for all seven characteristics Mendel studied: 1. Only one of two possible traits showed up in first generation (F 1 ) 2. Trait not seen in first generation showed up in the second generation (F 2 ), always in a 3:1 ratio
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Mendel’s Explanation 1. Each characteristic is controlled by a separate “factor” (= _ ____ ), and there are ___ “variants” (= ______ ) for each gene in each plant. His main clue: the F 1 generation results (i.e., when he crossed a true-breeding purple & a true-breeding white…no white flowers showed up!) Thus, Mendel deduced the diploid nature of organisms before chromosomes and genes were discovered!
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Fig 14.4 Have same genes, & possibly different alleles per gene
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P P P p _________________ - when the 2 alleles are the same _________________ -when the 2 alleles are different
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More Terminology… Gene A specific _____ or stretch of DNA on a chromosome that determines a __________ character. With Mendel’s pea plants, the character “flower color” is determined by a gene, the “flower color gene.” Alleles Different forms of the _________ . With Mendel’s pea plants, the flower color gene has two alleles: an allele for purple (P) and an allele for white (p). Recessive vs. dominant alleles The recessive (___) allele is _____________ in the presence of the dominant allele.
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2011 Slide Set VI Spr08 - SLIDE SET VI Outline I. Mendel -...

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