This is due to the increasing necessity to treat

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Unformatted text preview: recent years. This is due to the increasing necessity to treat heavier and more contaminated crude oil supplies, the need to produce less heavy fuel oils and the risen demand for higher quantities of transport fuels. Additionally transport fuels of better 1. Introduction 2 ytrtrghrhrhhrhrhhffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff quality are demanded, which must contain less aromatics, less sulphur and nitrogen due to new environmental laws [10, 11, 12, 13]. To fulfill these needs hydrocracking and hydrotreatment are applied, consuming large quantities of hydrogen. Furthermore, the drop in the allowed amount of aromatics in the car fuels led to a reduction of the amount of hydrogen produced as side product in other refinery processes. All this led to a sharp increase in the need of refineries for hydrogen. It was projected in 1994 that between 1994 and 2000 the hydrogen growth rate would be approximately 10% per year in the USA and in 21% in Western Europe [10], making the installation of new units for the production of hydrogen necessary. This trend is believed to continue further in the next years [10, 11, 14]. On an industrial scale hydrogen is mainly produced by the transformation of fossil fuels to syngas (CO + H2). The environmentally attractive water splitting to yield H2 and O2 is very endothermic (∆Hf° (H2O) = -285.85 kJ/mol [15]). Therefore it is currently far from being economically viable on a large scale and is projected to be suitable only in the long run, at the end of the 21st century or even later [11]. One process widely applied in refineries is the non-catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons in which hydrocarbons are transformed into syngas by the exothermic partial oxidation with oxygen. As it is a non-catalysed process it requires high reaction temperatures, making it only economically viable when so called bottom-of-the-barrel feedstock is used, which is of low quality and difficult to proces...
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