Lecture 12 Reserve Sampling

Lecture 12 Reserve Sampling - MNGN 210 Introduction to...

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MNGN 210: Introduction to Mining Hugh Miller Reserve Sampling Class Notes Spring 2007 Lecture Outline Reserve Sampling A. Introduction 1. The Sampling Program is Fundamental to Project Evaluation and Reserve Analysis. 2. Legal and Ethical Responsibilities 3. Careful Supervision and Internal/External Scrutiny of Data and Sampling Procedures are Essential. B. Typical Objectives of Sampling 1. Definition of Deposit Extents 2. Quantify Spatial Distribution of Tonnage and Grade 3. Generate Additional Information (a) Geologic Structure (b) Mineralogy (c) Geo-mechanical Properties (d) Physical Characteristics (e.g., densities, swell, hydrology, etc.) C. Sampling Method and Density 1. Highly Dependent on Type and Characteristics of the Deposit (a) Deposit Structure and Type of Mineralization (b) Deposit Orientation and Geometry (c) Depth (d) Perceived Method of Mining (e) Other Examples: I. Precious Metal Epithermal Deposits Rapid Vertical Zonation Erratic Lateral Grade Distribution II. Deep Massive Sulfide Deposits 2. Access, Topographic, and Operating Constraints 3. Environmental & Social Constraints 4. Time Constraints D. Sample Methods 1. Surface Sampling Methods (a) Passive Sampling Soil, Outcrops, etc. (b) Trenching (c) Drilling 2. Underground Sampling Methods (a) Channel Sampling (b) Chip-Channel (c) Drilling 1
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MNGN 210: Introduction to Mining Hugh Miller Reserve Sampling Class Notes Spring 2007 Lecture Outline Reserve Sampling E. Surface Sampling 1. Passive Sampling (a) Includes a wide variety of activities ranging from soil/sediment sampling to biochemical analysis. (b) Generally defined as any sampling program not utilizing mechanized equipment, excluding hand-held tools (e.g., pneumatic chipping drills/guns). (c) Usually begins during the early stages of exploration and continues into pre- production. (d) Samples assayed for target and indicator mineralization as well as a “sweep” of other discrete minerals, elements, pollutants, toxins, organic compounds, etc. (e) Data used for a multiple of purposes in addition to reserve analysis, including: exploration, environmental permitting/baseline studies, geotechnical analysis, etc. 2. Trenching (a) Purpose to provides stratigraphic exposure of surface sediments/soils/altered and weathered rock (sides of trench) and/or exposure of vein and mineralized structures and bedrock (bottom of trenches). (b) Limited in application due to geologic requisites and the nature of the disturbance. (c) Considered a “major disturbance” necessitating a plan of operation, environmental assessment, a state reclamation and/or operating permits, a reclamation bond, and/or other regulatory devices. (d) In most cases, does not include the use of explosives except in boulder removal. Blastcasting methods of trenching are very seldom used. (e) Layout of the trenching program dependent upon: I. Geologic characteristics and geometry of the deposit.
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