Lecture Unit 8

# Lecture Unit 8 - Introduction to Mining Lecture Unit 8:...

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Introduction to Mining Lecture Unit 8: Engineering Concepts Swell Equivalence Colorado School of Mines Mining Engineering Department Spring 2007

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Volumetric and Density Parameters Volume Measurement Material volume is defined relative to its physical state. The three principle measures of volume in mining include: (1) Bank Bank measurements refer to material that is in it’s natural, in-place state Common units include bcyd, bcft, and bcm
Volumetric and Density Parameters Volume Measurement (2) Loose Like the term implies, loose measurements refer to material that has been fragmented and disturbed due to blasting, excavation, or induced failure. The volume per unit ton of loose material is generally much greater than material in it’s bank state. Common units include lcyd, lcft, and lcm

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Volumetric and Density Parameters Volume Measurement (3) Compacted Compacted measurements refer to the densification of loose materials by means of mechanical compaction. Common units include ccyd, ccft, and ccm
Volumetric and Density Parameters Units of Weight Short Ton (st or ton): 2,000 Metric Tonne (mt or tonne): 2,205 lbs Long Ton (Lt): 2,240 lbs Common Precious Metals Units Troy Ounces (ozt); where 12 ozt = 1 troy pound (lbt) Grams (g); where 1 ozt = 31.1 g Pounds (lb) Kilograms (kg) Volume measurements (cyds or cm)

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Material Density and Specific Gravity Characteristics Density and specific gravity are largely dependent upon material composition, particle shape, moisture content, and internal void/pore space. Material density (specific gravity) influence numerous engineering calculations, including: Ore Reserve Estimation Equipment Selection Material Balancing (Dump, Tailings, and Fill) Mine Life and Production Rate
Material Density and Specific Gravity Characteristics Density is highly erratic in many rock types and ores and as such, must be determined relative to specific lithologies and mine locations by virtue of extensive sampling and testing. There are numerous examples of operations burdened by economic and technical problems related to the inadequate sampling of density/specific gravity during feasibility.

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Material Density and Specific Gravity Types of Density Measurements (1) Mass Density Defined as mass per unit volume: ρ = (Mass) / (Volume) While commonly used in metric units, rarely employed with english measurements.
Material Density and Specific Gravity Types of Density Measurements (2) Weight Density Defined as weight per unit volume: ρ w = (Weight) / (Volume) Commonly used throughout the U.S. (english units)

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Material Density and Specific Gravity Types of Density Measurements (3) Specific Gravity Defined as the ratio of the density of any material to the density of a standard, generally water for solid materials The specific gravity of a solid object can be calculated by: S.G. = (Wgt in Air) / [(Wgt in Air) – (Wgt in Water)]
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## This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course MNGN 101 taught by Professor Bigguy during the Spring '07 term at Mines.

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Lecture Unit 8 - Introduction to Mining Lecture Unit 8:...

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