Unformatted text preview: stralia. In New Zealand, free British
people settled there for the most part. South Africa: England gained control in the early 19th century, the Dutch had colonized before them. Afrikaans was pushed out and
English moved in. South Africans learned English because it has much fewer racial connotations unlike Afrikaans - South Asia:
British colonized India, but now only 4.5% of Indians use English everyday - Former Colonial Africa:
Initially divided into territories by colonial powers: French, Portuguese, Irish, English. English
spread because of trade, then Britain established governments in English there - South-east Asia and the South Pacific:
Colonization by Britain, then spread by America during wars 4. Following Prof. Kachru’s work (UIUC Professor Emeritus of Linguistics), the
spread of English has been discussed in terms of three concentric circles.
Describe each of these circles and give examples.
- Inner Circle:
Traditional bases of English, Canada/ Australia/ New Zealand/ UK/ USA - Outer Circle:
English was brought there, still functions as the probably the second language there
but not everyone speaks it. Singapore/ Malaysia/ Hong Kong/ Nigeria - Expanding Circle:
Countries where they recognize the importance of English, but there is no long history
with the language. English is seen as a foreign language. China/ Japan/ Greece...
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