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Unformatted text preview: devices. Drawbacks: • p­doping is currently very difficult and inefficient and has prevented mass manufacturing of ZnO­based wafers. • High­purity ZnO grown on substrates other than sapphire has been challenging. 7 Nano­Structures • Zinc oxide shows great potential for nanoscale electro­mechanical fabrication. • Highly­symmetric, singly­crystalline nanoneedles, nanowires, nanobelts, nanorings, nanohelixes, nanocombs, etc. • Hexagonal (wurtzite) structure helps lattice­matching and controlled growth. • Positive Zn surfaces and negative O surfaces create electric dipoles that facilitate polarization growth along certain directions and planes under applied voltage and temperature. 8 Nano­Structures 9 10 12/03/2007 11 12/03/2007 12 Summary • • • • • • • • ZnO displays dual semiconductor and piezoelectric properties. Used in laser diodes and LED’s. Potential to be used as a wide-bandgap semiconductor. Widely used in many other fields (medicine, farming, pigments). Zinc oxide nanostructure growth is heavily researched...
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