pg 895-911, 915-918

pg 895-911, 915-918 - Pages 895-911 915-918 SPREADING...

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Pages 895-911; 915-918 SPREADING WESTERN ORDER BEYOND THE WEST After mid-century Great Britain, France and Russia revised their colonial policies by instituting direct rule, expanding colonial bureaucracies, and in many cases dunproviding a wider array of social and cultural services, such as schools o Great Britain made a dramatic change of course toward direct political rule during the 1850s and 1860s Before the 1850s, British liberals desired commercial gain from colonies, but, believing in laissez-fair, they kept political involvement in colonial affairs minimal In India, the East India Company ruled on Britain’s behalf, and many regional rulers awarded the company commercial advantages Since the 18 th Century, the East India Company had expanded its dominion over various kingdoms on the Indian subcontinent, becoming the major tax collector for the region and building railroads throughout the countryside to make commerce and revenue collecting more efficient In 1857, a contingent of Indian troops (Muslim and Hindu), violently rebelled against the expanded British presence and the disregard it entailed for their autonomy and local beliefs The soldiers, angered at tightening British control, stormed and conquered the old Moghul capital at Delhi and declared the independence of the Indian nation Indian Rebellion Simultaneously, there erupted civil rebellions, composed both of leaders who were being displaced and the general populace who backed them The virtually powerless emperor, Bahadur Shah, explained the rebellion as one against “the tyranny and oppression of the infidel and treacherous English” The rani (queen) Lakshmibai, widow of the ruler of the state of Jhansi in central India, led a separate military revolt when the East India Company tried to take over her lands after her husband died o Brutally put down by British-led Indian forces from other regions, the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the Jhansi revolt gave birth to Indians nationalism o Also persuaded the British government to issue the Government of India Act of 1858, which established direct British control of India o Indians also collected taxes and distributed patronage Colonial rule meant both blatant domination and more subtle intervention in everyday life Other ordinary Indians benefited in some places from improved sanitation and medicine Following the British attack on their cultural practices, some upper-class Indians came to reject Indian customs such as infanticide, child marriage, and sati (a widow’s self-immolation on her husband’s funeral pyre o French political expansion was similarly a matter of push, pull and paradox The French government pushed to establish its dominion over Cochin China in the 1860s Like the British, the French brought improvements, such as the Mekong Delta project that increased the amount of cultivated land and spurred rapid growth in food supply The French also undertook a cultural mission to transform cities like Saigon with signs of Western urban life that emulated those of Paris
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course HIST 1010 taught by Professor Frazier during the Fall '05 term at Western Michigan.

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pg 895-911, 915-918 - Pages 895-911 915-918 SPREADING...

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