pg 1014-1031 - Pages 1014-1031 PROTEST REVOLUTION AND WAR'S...

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Pages 1014-1031 PROTEST, REVOLUTION AND WAR’S END, 1917-1918 War Protest o On February 1, 1917, the German government resumed unrestricted submarine warfare The military make the irresistible promise to end the war in 6 months by cutting off imported food and military supplies to Britain and forcing the island nation to surrender before the US could come to its rescue The British responded by mining harbors and the seas and by developing the convoy system of shipping, in which a hundred or more warships and freighters traveling the seas could drive off the submarines The Germans’ submarine gamble failed to defeat the British and moreover, unrestricted submarine warfare brought the US into the war in 1917 after German U-Boats sunk several American ships o Political opposition increased in Europe, and deteriorating living conditions sparked outright revolt by citizens Food shortages in cities of Italy, Russia, Germany, and Austria provoked riots by women who were unable to feed their families Revolution in Russia o Russia sustained the greatest number of casualties – 7.5 million by 1917 o As women were turned away from stores, they fell in with other protesters commemorating International Women’s Day and began looting shops for food; factory workers and other civilians joined them o Since the Revolution of 1905 the masses had become politicized, leading to rising protest against the government’s incompetence and Nicholas II’s stubborn resistance to change Nicholas failed to unify the bureaucracy and his peoples in a concentrated wartime effort Grigori Rasputin held Nicholas and his wife, Alexandra, in his thrall by claiming to control the hemophilia of their son/heir His disastrous influence on state matters led educated and influential leaders to withdraw their support and when riots erupted in March 1917, Nicholas saw the reality of the situation and knew it was hopeless, resigning and ending the 300-year Romanov dynasty to an end o The Provisional Government Politicians from the old Duma formed a new ruling entity called the Provisional Government At first, hopes were high that under the Provisional Government, as one put it, “our false, filthy, boring, hideous life should become a just, pure, merry and beautiful life” The Provisional Government had to pursue the war successfully, manage international affairs better, and set government on a firm constitutional footing to establish its credibility o The Bolshevik Takeover
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pg 1014-1031 - Pages 1014-1031 PROTEST REVOLUTION AND WAR'S...

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