Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Study Guide Fall 2009 Biology...

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Exam 2 Study GuideFall 2009Biology 123Review the following movies:Why Sex?Life’s Greatest MiracleFemale parts to know: ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix, vagina, clitorisMale parts to know: testes, scrotum, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, seminal vesicles, urethra, penis, foreskinKey Concepts:Costs and benefits of asexual and sexual reproductionoAsexual: No partner needed, makes clones, no genetic variationsoSexual: Provides genetic variabilityGenetic Variability:Allows a population to survive changing environmental conditionsTwo Basic Strategies:Quantity: Produce many eggs, sperm or offspring and hope that some survive to reproduce (turtles, fish)Quality: Few, highly selected and highly nurtured offspring (Humans, elephants)Advantages of genetic variabilityoAllows an organism to be “biologically fit” meaning they are able to reproduce and have those offspring survive to reproduceoThe species is able to change and adapt to the environment and different traits are brought in or weeded outLoss of Variability:oAsexual reproduction: clonesoInbreeding: Reduction in numbers in a population leads to inbreeding and the population becomes more genetically similaroGenetic Bottlenecking: Consequence of reduction in numbers of species, fewer chances to recombine genetic materialoMating becomes non-random: excessive sexual selection leads to less variabilityoImmigration/Emigration becomes isolate: No one comes or leaves (an island)Review all terms you’ve been given in lists on slidesoCytokinesis: Division of the cell membraneoDiploid: 2 complete copies of every chromosomeoHaploid:A single copy of every chromosomeoGene:Unit of DNA that codes for a specific traitoAllele:Different forms of a geneoChromatin:Loosely coiled DNA in the nucleus, the working DNA that will be condensed into chromosomes

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