HIST 1377 LECTURE NOTES - First Contacts I European Voyages A Leif Eriksson Marco Polo B Christopher Columbus II The First Americans III Roanoke(see

HIST 1377 LECTURE NOTES - First Contacts I European Voyages...

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August 23, 2011 First Contacts I. European Voyages. A. Leif Eriksson; Marco Polo B. Christopher Columbus II. The First Americans III. Roanoke (see reader notes for more detail) A. Sir Walter Raleigh B. Croatoan I. European Voyages A. Vikings found America before Columbus in the 10-11 century B. Leif Eriksson establishes Viking colony in “Newfoundland” in about 1000 B.1. This is proven because in 1950 archeologist found remnants of things not built by Native Americans C. “Northman” tried to est. colonies but it didn’t work C.1. Took 492 years to actually work =| D. Things in England that allowed Columbus to take voyage D.1. Awareness if a world around Europe D.1.a. Voyages of Marco Polo to the east. D.1.a.i. Knew of the middle east but had no knowledge of anything further east D.1.a.i.a. Got info from the middle eastern people who told him of other people more east…so on and so forth D.1.a.i.b. Found China! D.1.a.i.c. Kept journal of what he found D.1.a.i.c.a) For those who were illiterate he brought back stuff to show to them D.1.a.i.d. Brought back very important things D.1.a.i.d.a) Gunpowder D.1.a.i.d.b) Silk D.1.a.i.d.c) Spices D.1.a.i.d.d) Textiles D.1.a.i.d.e) Pasta D.1.b. Rise of Nation-States D.1.b.i. Before nation-states there were kingdoms…etc D.1.b.i.a. Nation-states tended to be: D.1.b.i.a.a) Geo. Specific D.1.b.i.a.b) Had their own law and government D.1.b.i.a.c) And were ethnic D.1.c. New strides in navigation (no educated person thought the world was flat. The Greeks knew it was spherical.)
D.1.c.i. Portuguese gave them ideas D.1.c.ii. Took until 1471 to reach equator in Africa D.1.c.ii.a. Found gold and brought back slaves E. Columbus E.1. Developed a plan to go west to reach Asia (thought it would take 4-5 weeks) E.1.a. August 1492 left from Spain going west E.1.b. October 12, 1492 found land E.1.b.i. Thought it was Asia, actually was San Salvador E.1.b.i.a. Saw the people and terrain and thought he was in India E.1.b.i.a.a) Brought home people for slaves E.1.b.ii. He went on 3 more voyages still thinking he was in Asia E.1.b.ii.a. 1504 was his last voyage and died still thinking he reached Asia. E.1.b.iii. Others realized that this land was different than Polo described and that it wasn’t Asia. E.1.b.iv. Every nation-state wanted to find this “new nation” and claim in E.1.b.iv.a. Spain won, portegual-2 nd , France- 3 rd E.1.b.iv.a.a) England was WAY after the fact. E.1.b.iv.a.b) First colony was St. Augustine, Fl. Est. 1565 by Spain E.1.b.iv.b. (see about Sir Francis Drake in textbook notes) E.1.b.iv.c. (see about Phillip II of Spain in textbook notes) August 25, 2011 II. The First Americans A. No idea of how many natives, probably millions A.1. (see more about the specific natives in textbook notes) B. Columbian Exchange B.1. It was biological B.2. Natives got: B.2.a. Animals B.2.a.i. Horses, cows, pigs (didn’t exist before European contact) B.2.b. People B.2.c. Viruses B.2.c.i. Smallpox B.2.c.ii. Flu
B.2.c.ii.a. These didn’t exist either B.2.d. The Europeans gave their clothing infected w/ small pox to the natives to basically kill them off B.3.

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