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Lecture 12 Sub-Saharan Africa

Lecture 12 Sub-Saharan Africa - Lecture 12 Sub-Saharan...

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Lecture 12 Sub-Saharan Africa I. Concepts of Development 1. Development: modernization or “The act of developing.” It is about “creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests.” ( Human Development Report 2001) 2. Discussion: should development be equated with economic growth? Why? No, China – is poised to become the third largest economy in the world. 3. Political Development Political development: The process of establishing a government that is effective in (1) exerting power; (2) providing public goods (e.g., public order and services); and (3) achieving peaceful and predictable transition of political power. 4. Model of a developed nation: - economically, - socially, - politically 5. Developing nations (also called: less developed countries, modernizing nations, the Third World, or “ the South ”): -- endemic poverty -- high level of ethnic, religious, or tribal conflict; -- widespread illiteracy; political turmoil; and -- significant class cleavages. 6. Four fundamental challenges faced by developing countries : Nation building, state building, participation, and distribution 1. Nation building : the process by which all the inhabitants of a given territory come to identify with the symbols and institutions of their nation-state and to share a common sense of destiny . Once individuals identify with the new nation, nation building calls for them eventually to become citizens who regard their nation’s government as legitimate. Examples: 2. State building : the creation of political institutions (inter alia, a central government) with extractive capacity (be able to collect taxes), steering capacity (ability to promote socio-economic development by providing public goods and services), legitimation capacity (the capacity to have its claim to rule willingly accepted), and coercive capacity (the power to coerce).
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