Chapter 3 - Chapter 3: Perception and Learning,...

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Chapter 3: Perception and Learning, understanding and adapting to the work environment Social Perception and Social Identity: Understanding others and ourselves Social Perception: What are others like? Social perception: the process of combining, integrating, and interpreting information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them o Process is so automatic that we are almost never aware that its happening o Attribution: the process through which individuals attempt to determine the causes behind other’s behaviors Social Identity: Who are you? Personal identity: the characteristics that define a particular individual Social Identity: who a person is, as defined in terms of his or her membership in carious social groups Social identity theory: a conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive others and ourselves is based on both our unique characteristics and our membership in various groups o Claims that the way we identify ourselves is likely to be based on our uniqueness in a group o Because we belong to many groups, we are likely to have several unique aspects of ourselves to use as the basis for establishing our identities o we are likely to identify ourselves with groups we believe to be perceived positively by others o explains how we perceive others o we focus on the differences b/w ourselves and other individuals as well as members of other groups tend to simplify things by assuming that people in different groups share certain qualities that make them different from us, even if they aren’t different at all we perceive others as different as us but also in negative ways The Attribution Process: Judging the Causes of Others’ Behavior Common question asked is WHY? Because we are attempting to get at two different types of info o What is someone really like? o What made the person behave as he did Making Correspondent Inferences: Using Acts to judge Disposition How do we identify others traits? o We learn about others bu observing their behavior and then inferring their traits off of that information o Correspondent inferences: judgments about people’s dispositions, their traits and characteristics, that correspond to what we have observed of their actions Challenges in Judging others Accurately The judgments we make about someone may be inaccurate because there are many possible causes of his or her behavior Correspondent inferences may not always be accurate
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o People on the job may conceal some of their traits—those that are most likely to be viewed as negative o People often do their best to disguise some of their basic traits o Because behavior is complex and has many different causes and because people sometimes purposely disguise their true characteristics, forming correspondent inferences is a risky business Making Accurate inferences about others We can focus on others behavior in situations in which they don’t have to behave in a pleasant/socially acceptable manner
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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3: Perception and Learning,...

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