Physical Notes

Physical Notes - Anth 2010(Physical/Biological Anthropology...

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Unformatted text preview: Anth 2010 (Physical/Biological Anthropology) FINAL at 7:30pm in Hale 130 on Saturday the 10 th Science and the Scientific method • Defining Science o Origin of the word => Latin word Scire – to know o How do we know things? Senses Authority sources (elders, scientists, ect) Logic from observation and deduction Faith • Understand the goal of science o To improve our understanding of the natural world using natural processes and explanations • Understanding the scientific method o Steps Observations • Ex: The Rodents in Banff National Park have shorter tails then those in the Gila National park Question • Ex: Why is the tail shorter? Hypothesis: Active (H a ), Directional (Hd), Alternative (nothing to do with the original hypothesis (H a2 ), Null (H )(has no relationship to the original) • Ex: o Ha: Temperature effects tail length o Hd: Colder temperature causes s decrease tail size o H0: Temperature has no effect on tail length Data Collection (must apply to hypothesis) • Variables: o Independent: Is not influenced by the experiment (X-AXIS) Ex: Temperature o Dependent: IS influenced by the independent Variable (Y-AXIS) Ex: Tail length • Measure tail length and temperatures • The more variability the larger the needed sample size Analyze Data • Create charts and tables Accept or Reject hypothesis • If the data supports the data then you accept but pose more questions based on your findings • Critique your process: sample size, locations, etc Publication of data and their interpretation 1 • Peer review • Debate Further investigation • Collect new data • Replication of original study New Questions • Never ending cycle of gaining knowledge • Seeing new problems during original study o Advantages Consistency in methodology allows for repeatability Strive for objectivity • Try and avoid bias Burden of support (proof) is high o Limitations Science is limited to observable, natural phenomenon Experimenter effect • Thing to think about regarding the scientific method o Facts (laws) in science – observation (gravity) o Theory – Conceptual framework that explains observations and makes predictions The more predictions a theory makes the more useful it is = greater explanatory power (the rotation of the earth creates gravity) o From hypothesis to theory “it is just a theory” a theory does not equal an idea there is scientific weight behind it Needs proof and support in science o Science is dynamic and always changing o Science is self correcting (what we think today can change) o Role of interpretation and knowledge base People: o Aristotle 4 th century BCE o Observed the endemic plant and animal life and concluded that all were fixed and could not be altered; this was the idea of immutability of species. He also believed that there was a hierarchy with humans fixed on top. These ideas were written in Great Chain of Beingtop....
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Physical Notes - Anth 2010(Physical/Biological Anthropology...

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