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Unformatted text preview: ANTH 2060 Review For Final Exam Review Session: Friday, May 5 @ 4:00 p.m. in Hale Science Room 246 The final exam is NOT cumulative. Topics 1. Complex traits a. Multi-factorial a. These traits still go by Mendel’s laws, but are more complicated (dominance and recessiveness) b. Has both gene and environment factors c. Polygenic (many genes that contribute to a trait) d. Ex: Height, Color of the skin, hair, and other pigmentation, Intelligence, Lung capacity, Weight (under and over), Addictions (gambling, drugs, alcohol), Risk taking behavior Obesity • Use identical twins raised separately, if both are or both aren’t it would suggest concordance • If adopted individuals are showing concordance in their household then it is environment Language skills • MZ (monozygotic twin) = h 2 = 0.81 • DZ (dizygotic twins) = h 2 = 0.42 Schizophrenia • MZ = h 2 = 0.46 • DZ = h 2 = 0.09 • Can say that schizophrenia is less genetically related than language is Intelligence for MZ • Preschool = 0.4 • Adolescence = 0.6 • Adults = 0.8 • Heritability obviously changes, the influence of environment is different at different stages of one’s life • Galton: Darwin’s cousin who was obsessed with intelligence and genetics. He looked at money- earning ability and intelligence, saw that money- earning ability is heritable thus intelligence must be heritable. Ignored environment e. When talking about the frequency of a Multifactorial phenotype we use a bell curve shape (a range not have or have not) f. How do we study Multifactorial Traits? o What are we trying to do: find out what proportion is genetic and what proportion is environment o How can we do that? Take identical twins and raise them in different environments • Look at monozygotic (from one zygote) twins Or adoption studies and their environment b/c the relation of genes between kid and adoptive parents would be 0% o Concordance: How much they agree. Show as a percentage o Identical twins raised apart Coefficient relationship = 100% Correlation coefficients • 100% genetic we should see 100% concordance, but we don’t which shows environment Similarities • Genes 100% • Same womb environment Differences • Post-natal environment Issues • Environment: some tragic event happens so the twins are separated and sent to two different houses (most of the time with relatives) so these environments are not that different • Treatment: twins are never treated the same so can we ever argue that the environment is the same o Fraternal twins Coefficient of relationship = 50% How do they differ from normal siblings: they shared a womb Similarities • Womb • Genes • Postnatal environment: shared if they live together Differences • Share only 50% of genes • Postnatal environment: no matter what the environment could not be they same How can we use these twins?...
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- Fall '05
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