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Unformatted text preview: ANTH 2060 Review For Final Exam Review Session: Friday, May 5 @ 4:00 p.m. in Hale Science Room 246 The final exam is NOT cumulative. Topics 1. Complex traits a. Multi-factorial a. These traits still go by Mendels laws, but are more complicated (dominance and recessiveness) b. Has both gene and environment factors c. Polygenic (many genes that contribute to a trait) d. Ex: Height, Color of the skin, hair, and other pigmentation, Intelligence, Lung capacity, Weight (under and over), Addictions (gambling, drugs, alcohol), Risk taking behavior Obesity Use identical twins raised separately, if both are or both arent it would suggest concordance If adopted individuals are showing concordance in their household then it is environment Language skills MZ (monozygotic twin) = h 2 = 0.81 DZ (dizygotic twins) = h 2 = 0.42 Schizophrenia MZ = h 2 = 0.46 DZ = h 2 = 0.09 Can say that schizophrenia is less genetically related than language is Intelligence for MZ Preschool = 0.4 Adolescence = 0.6 Adults = 0.8 Heritability obviously changes, the influence of environment is different at different stages of ones life Galton: Darwins cousin who was obsessed with intelligence and genetics. He looked at money- earning ability and intelligence, saw that money- earning ability is heritable thus intelligence must be heritable. Ignored environment e. When talking about the frequency of a Multifactorial phenotype we use a bell curve shape (a range not have or have not) f. How do we study Multifactorial Traits? o What are we trying to do: find out what proportion is genetic and what proportion is environment o How can we do that? Take identical twins and raise them in different environments Look at monozygotic (from one zygote) twins Or adoption studies and their environment b/c the relation of genes between kid and adoptive parents would be 0% o Concordance: How much they agree. Show as a percentage o Identical twins raised apart Coefficient relationship = 100% Correlation coefficients 100% genetic we should see 100% concordance, but we dont which shows environment Similarities Genes 100% Same womb environment Differences Post-natal environment Issues Environment: some tragic event happens so the twins are separated and sent to two different houses (most of the time with relatives) so these environments are not that different Treatment: twins are never treated the same so can we ever argue that the environment is the same o Fraternal twins Coefficient of relationship = 50% How do they differ from normal siblings: they shared a womb Similarities Womb Genes Postnatal environment: shared if they live together Differences Share only 50% of genes Postnatal environment: no matter what the environment could not be they same How can we use these twins?...
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- Fall '05