Memorandum_about_the_Syrian_Civil_War.docx - 1 Memorandum...

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1Memorandum to: The Administration of Donald TrumpCharlotte RohrerApril 25th, 2017On the case of Syria: IraqOn December 17, 2010 the Tunisian revolution started. This sparked a revolutionarywave in several Middle Eastern state, known as the Arab spring. One of the most affectedcountries of the Arab Spring is Syria. As many other Middle Eastern countries, Syrian citizen’ssparked protests against the Assad regime in March 2011. They were met by Assad’s militarywho opened fire on them. From then on protests became more and more violent and the dividebetween Assad supporters, the military and Assad opposers even bigger (“Mid-East unrest:Syrian protests in Damascus and Aleppo”, 2011). Soon, former Syrian military forces formed theFree Syrian Army with the goal to “bring down Assad’s government (Landis, 2011). The FSAwas often opposed by the Syrian military and Assad’s government, forcing them to fight severalbattles. In late November 2011 both the FSA and Syrian government had retreated to directlyattacking each other. This led to the involvement of the CIA and NATO which sent French andBritish troops that trained the rebels’ forces (Giraldi, 2011). Even though a ceasefire was soondeclared by then United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, the ceasefire collapsed rathersoon and the fighting continued. In 2012, the unrest in Syria was officially declared a civil war(Ghattas, 2012). Furthermore, the Islamist, al-Qaeda related al-Nusra front took the side of theSyrian rebels and aided the rebels by seizing air bases (“Syrian rebels seize key air base, activistssay”, 2013). However, groups such as Hezbollah, a Lebanese militant group and political party,as well as YPG, a Kurdish militant group, began fighting Syrian rebel groups. YPG especially
2began being involved in the war effort and was later supported by the US government and foughtalongside Kurdish PKK forces based in Iraq, whereas Hezbollah became a strong supporter ofthe Syrian military and Assad regime.In June 2013, ISIS emerged by killing one of the rebel forces’ leader. The Islamic State ofSyria and the Levant, better known as ISIL or ISIS is a jihadist militant group currentlycontrolling parts of Iraq and Syria. ISIS declared themselves as a caliphate – a state governed inaccordance with Sharia law-in June 2014 and finds it imperative for all Muslims over the worldto worship their leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (“What Is 'Islamic State'?, 2015). In December2013 they took control of the central city of Falluja, from then on they proceeded to seize controlof major parts of Iraq and Syria. This region is also known as the Tigris-Euphrates river area andcovers about 210,000 square km. In terms of people living under control of ISIS,the presidentof the International Committee of the Red Cross estimated the figure to be over ten million

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Term
Fall
Professor
ge
Tags
The American, ISIS, President Assad, The Grave,

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