Cognition And Language 2 _Bryant Fall 07_

Cognition And Language 2 _Bryant Fall 07_ - Lecture Outline...

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Lecture Outline The brain and thought Emotion and thought Language
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Frontal Cortex and Thought The frontal lobes are critical for thought. Dorsolateral prefrontal region : damage here leads to impaired planning, more distractability, and deficits in working memory. Skill acquisition shifts activity to the motor cortex and the basal ganglia. Ventromedial prefrontal region : damage here interrupts connections to the limbic system and results in mood swings, loss of social inhibition, and changes in personality. Ventromedial prefrontal damage impairs the feeling of emotion (no visceral reaction to disturbing images).
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Overview of Prefrontal Cortex Ventral view of Brain Dorsal view of Brain
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Emotion and Thinking We have defined thinking as goal-directed. Thus, the goal determines how hard we think and when we should stop. The judgment of whether a goal has been reached is directly or indirectly derived from the motivation for the judgment. Emotions can interfere with thought processes. The example of risk aversion Biased information gathering or application of reasoning Excessive emotion can disrupt thought
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Alda Train Dilemma
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How Should People Think? Thinking is functional; it depends on the situation (goals and resources). Fallible heuristics may suffice for everyday problems of living (“satisficing”, or “good enough” judgments). Deciding on a restaurant, selecting clothes, etc. Formal reasoning is required for difficult situations, both technical and social. Science and technology Child rearing and other relationships Ethics and political decision making
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Language A language is a system of symbols, sounds, meanings, and rules of combination that allows for communication among humans.
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Brain Story Language Intro Language
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Grammar Phonology : rules for combining sounds to make words Phonemes : the smallest units of sound Morphemes : the smallest units of meaning Syntax : rules for combining words to make sentences Semantics : rules used to communicate meaning
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Phonemes and Morphemes One word can have multiple morphemes.
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