Lecture 5 Chapter 2

Lecture 5 Chapter 2 - General Chemistry I Fall 2007 Joann...

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General Chemistry I Fall 2007 Joann S. Monko Chemistry 9th ed. Raymond Chang
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Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) Experiments “quantified” science. Father of Modern Chemistry 1 st Text: Elementary Treatise on Chemistry Closed systems = heated metals to form “ash” (metal oxides) Named Oxygen – 20% of air Combustion was a process = not an element Weighed substances before & after a reaction
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Clicker Question What was the ash that formed on the tin? A. Contamination/dirt B. a new compound - metal oxide C. Particulate oxygen
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Law of Conservation of Mass Matter cannot be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. Cannot create matter from nothing. All new substances are the results of “transformations” of matter. Mass of Reactants = Mass of Products Chemistry, 8th ed. Chang
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Robert Boyle The Skeptical Chymist (1661) Redefined elements – substances than could not be broken down into similar substances. Compounds – substance formed from two or more elements. Joseph Louis Poust (1754-1826) Each compound had the same elements in the same proportions – any source. Law of Definite Proportions or Law of Constant Composition
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Possible to predict the end of the reaction or when too much starting material is present. Limiting reagent – the reactant present in the lesser amount. Chemistry for Changing Times , 10th ed., Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity 5th ed.
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Law of Multiple Proportions Elements can combine in more than one set of proportions – CO and CO 2 . John Dalton (1766-1844) English schoolteacher Chemistry for Changing Times , 10th ed., Hill & Kolb
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All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are indivisible. All atoms of a given element are identical. Atoms of different elements have different properties. Compounds are formed by combination of two or more different kinds of atoms. Atoms combine in ratios of small whole numbers.
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Lecture 5 Chapter 2 - General Chemistry I Fall 2007 Joann...

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