Chapter 2 - Chapter 3

Chapter 2 - Chapter 3 - General Chemistry I Fall 2007 Joann...

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General Chemistry I Fall 2007 Joann S. Monko Chemistry 9th ed. Raymond Chang
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Arrhenius Theory Acids – any molecular substance that breaks apart in aqueous solution to form H + and anions. H+ (hydrogen ions) – give acids their properties. Bases – any substance that releases OH - in aqueous solution. OH- (hydroxide ions) – give bases their properties. Neutralization Acid + Base Salt + Water Acids & Bases
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Limitations of Arrhenius Theory Hydrogen ions don’t exist in solution! H+ connects to the lone e- pair on an oxygen of another water molecule. The Hydronium Ion – H 3 O + Other molecules, besides hydroxides (OH - ), form basic solutions. NH 3 , ammonia is a base. H O H H .. +
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Chemistry, 8 th ed. Chang
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Hydrated Compounds A HYDRATE contains water molecules built into its structure in definite proportions. Gypsum = CaSO 4 2 H 2 0 When heated, the water is lost, resulting in an ANHYDROUS SALT . -CaSO 5th ed.
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Hydrated Compounds Water loss usually occurs under 200 ° C. Salts form hydrates with 1-12 molecules of water. Hydrates are described as formula units – not molecules, because of the ionic bonding within the salt. Hygroscopic Salts – rapidly absorb water (dessicants) Efflorescent Solids – hydrates that spontaneously loose water at room temp.
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5th ed.
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Counting Atoms Mg burns in air (O Mg burns in air (O 2 ) to ) to produce white magnesium produce white magnesium oxide, MgO. oxide, MgO. How can we figure out how How can we figure out how much oxide is produced much oxide is produced from a given mass of Mg? from a given mass of Mg?
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Monko during the Winter '08 term at Kutztown.

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Chapter 2 - Chapter 3 - General Chemistry I Fall 2007 Joann...

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