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IV.Political Organization of SpaceAnnexation: Incorporation of a territory into another geo-political entity.Antarctica: Southernmost continent in the world. It has no permanent residents and doesn't belong to any country. Apartheid: Afrikaans for apartness, it was the segregation of blacks in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. It was created to keep the white minority in power and allow them to have almost total control over the black majority. Balkanization: The political term used when referring to the fragmentation or breakup of a region or country into smaller regions or countries. The term comes from the Balkan wars, where the country of Yugoslavia was broken up in to six countries between 1989 and 1992. It was the effect of the Balkan wars. Border Landscape: There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border. Boundary disputes: Conflicts over the location, size, and extent of borders between nations. There is conflict over where exactly the border is between the U.S. and Mexico, especially along the Rio Grande because the river has changed course and moved, and it is the traditional border.Definitional boundary disputesfocus on the legal language of the treaty’s definition of a boundary. Locational boundary disputes- The definition of the border isn’t questioned but the interpretation of the border is.OperationalBoundary Disputes- Two countries disagree on a major issue involving the border. Allocationalboundarydisputes– Don’t question the boundary itself but rather the use of it. Typically involve a natural resource. EX: the open ocean or under the ground.Boundary origin: Boundaries often originated from old tribal lands and lands won in war. They were meant to establish claims to land and were often smaller historically. Antecedent Boundary- boundary that was created before the present day cultural landscape developed, i.e., Malaysia/Indonesia on the island of Borneo.Subsequent Boundary- boundaries that are created as a result of long-term processes, i.e., Vietnam/China.Super Imposed Boundary- boundary that has been forced upon the inhabitants of an area to solve a problem and/or conflict, i.e., Indonesia/Papua New Guinea.Relic Boundary- boundary that ceases to exist, however the imprint of the boundary still remains on the cultural landscape, i.e., North/South Vietnam.Boundary process: The process of creating boundaries.Definition- the beginning point and the end point of a processDelimitation- is the term used to describe the drawing of boundaries, but is most often used to describe the drawing of electoral boundaries, specifically those of precincts, states, counties or other municaipalitiesDemarcation- the act of setting and marking limits or boundariesBoundary type: Many boundaries are natural boundaries, formed by rivers, mountains, etc. There are also political boundaries. These are often formed through war and compromise in treaties and agreements. In countries often form cultural boundaries that used to