Psych 1000 _ Semester 2 - Text Notes - 20:00 Intelligence Intelligence Ability to acquire knowledge to think and reason effectively and to deal

Psych 1000 _ Semester 2 - Text Notes - 20:00 Intelligence...

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Psych 1000  –  Chapter 10  –  Text Notes 20:00 “Intelligence” Intelligence: Ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment Intelligence in Historical Perspective Two MAJOR scientists in study/measurement of mental skills Sir Francis Galton Alfred Binet Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability Cousin of Charles Darwin heavily influenced by theory of evolution Believed ppl had “ inherited mental constitutions” Thought intelligence was unitary = mental quickness Develops correlation coefficient Biological basis that made them more fit for thinking Performed a variety of tests to prove this attempted to test nervous system efficiency Fell into disfavor unable to test socially relevant measures of mental ability (academic/occupational success) Alfred Binet’s Mental Tests Wanted to solve practical problem: Certain children did not benefit from normal public schooling Find way to identify these kids early so they can be put in diff. special school Correlate scores with teacher ratings: called criterion validity Made 2 assumptions about intelligence during tests: 1.) Mental abilities develop with age 2.) Rate at which ppl gain mental competence = characteristic
If individual is lagging at age 5, will still be lagging when they’re 10 Developed interview where series of questions are asked to kids Determines if they are at the right mental level for their age Mental Age: the results of the standardized interview E.g if 8 yr old could solve problems at level of 10 yr old, mental age = 10 William Stern expanded on concept of mental age Developed the concept of IQ IQ: Ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100 E.g mental age of 10/age of 8 = 10/8 x 100 = IQ of 125 Todays test no longer use concept of mental age If 20 yr old performed at 80 yr old level = IQ of 400?! No way…. Binet’s Legacy: An Intelligence-Testing Industry Emerges Lewis Terman: revised Binet’s work and applied it to American culture; called it the Stanford-Binet Army Alpha: Verbally-oriented test use to screen large number of U.S Army recruits for intellectual fitness Army Beta: Some recruits couldn’t read; non-verbal test mazes, picture- completion problems Influenced large-scale tests in education systems in America David Weschler: Develops competitor to Stanford-Binet; called Wechsler tests Different variations: WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), WISC (Wechsler Intelligence scale for Children), etc. Designed to test both verbal and non-verbal skills Today = most popularly administered intelligence test in N. America
The Nature of Intelligence Two major approaches to studying intelligence: 1.) Psychometric approach : Attempts to map structure of intelligence; discover mental competencies that underlie test performance 2.) Cognitive processes approach : Study of specific thought processes that underlie mental competencies The Psychometric Approach: Structure of Intellect Psychometrics: Statistical study of psychological tests Factor Analysis Factor Analysis:

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