CRIMINOLOGY #()

CRIMINOLOGY #() - Strain and Criminal Opportunities *Albert...

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Strain and Criminal Opportunities * Albert Cohen (1995) “Delinquent Boys” *focuses on plight of boys in the lower class *school are middle-class institutions *give lower class boys, middle class goals to obtain *lower class boys start having opp. value of middle class *non-utilitarian, malicious, negativistic *boys have short run hedonism *negate idea of work and replace it with idea of fun *target property because middle class hold property in high regard *activities not going toward concrete goals * Cloward and Ohlin *responding to Cohen; inspired by Merton * class - socio-economic problem * status - more symbolic *involves ppl you associate with *social membership in group *can be lower status and poor *lower class boys presented with middle class goals and status goals *may reject either or both * Type 1 - take in everything given; desire middle class respectability; conformist * Type 2 - given up on improving economic situation but desire middle- class respectability *given up on bank account * Type 4 - given up on everything *corner boys; loiterers *not big problem * Type 3 - don’t want middle class respectability but do want material benefits of being in middle class *problem boys *fast cars, fancy clothes, swell dames
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*In order to create crime need opportunities * social - others tell you how to do it *opportunity has to be social, given, and structured * social structure - institutions; arrangement of institutions in a place and their relationships with one another * legitimate - all things ppl normally participate in * illegitimate - organized crime; illegal activities *in order for a criminal subculture to develop, area has to have legitimate and illegitimate structure form *organized crime has to have friends in police so police will turn blind eye *fence- dealer of stolen goods; selling what ppl stole using ill. Means *older boys are teaching younger boys how to commit crimes * Cloward and Ohen say criminal activities HAVE utilitarian ideas *have goals in crime *only seems to be malicious because over conforming *hold values and exaggerate to be accepted DELINQUENT SUBCULTURES * criminal subculture - organized crime acts like bureaucracy *business interests involved lead to crime * conflict subculture - no organized criminal activities *boys make violence to gain status *fight with each other and join gangs * retreatist subculture - involve drugs *can exist in conflict or criminal subculture *only a few illegitimate jobs; only a few ppl can be a bad ass so the guys who aren’t “bad” enough retreat to drug Agnew’s General Strain Theory *strain is characterized as block goals and people can’t achieve goals *1) Strain As The Failure To Achieve Positively Valued Goals *want to go to UVA but UVA rejects you *for some reason, ppl can’t achieve goals *no prospects of reaching career goals *helps explain juvenile delinquency *tend to be present oriented *getting good grades *someone for prom *feel they should be achieving *violating justice principle
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CRIMINOLOGY #() - Strain and Criminal Opportunities *Albert...

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