midterm review geology - Geology 105 Midterm#2 21:19:00...

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Geology 105: Midterm #2 01/04/2007 21:19:00 GEOLOGY MIDTERM #2 REVIEW SHEET APRIL 2, 2007 Plate Tectonics : Briefly review, particularly in regards to the different types of rocks that form in different plate tectonic settings. The Evolution – Creationism debate: Your goal is to understand the bases & complexities of this debate between the two world-views, not to determine right and wrong. Science challenges a literal reading of the bible -are some items mentioned in the Bible based on natural events? In science supernatural explanations not allowed. So must search for natural explanations. For example is “the great flood” based on a naturally occurring historical event in Black Sea? o Evidence of ancient shorelines and transition from fresh to salt water… cause of flood, melting ice sheets.. then groups take the story of black sea with them Great debate: Creationism versus evolution. o Center of debate: are religious views “scientific enough” to be taught in a science class? o Brief history of debate. o Creationism: humans created by God. Bible interpreted literally. Evolution did not occur o Evolution: humans evolved by natural process… charles Darwin began the theory Judge William Overton’s legal view of science o Defined science aswhat scientists do o Creation science is not science… said science is guided by natural law and is falsifiable Intelligent Design “Theory”
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o Complexity of the universe suggest intelligent design o Thomas Aquinas o There is a creator who iniciated controls of process of creation for a purpose The “evolution” of the Creationism debate” o Older approach challenged biology content (model of universe). o New approach challenging scientific methodology (methods definition of science) Science falls apart if allow supernatural explanations (e.g. can’t trust “data”). A few religious viewpoints fall apart if accept results of science (e.g. Scripture as revealed truth). Atoms & Minerals: Definitions of minerals o Naturally Occuring o Inorganic o Solid with orderly internal sctucture o Definite chemical composition that may vary within narrow limits Definition of crystal. o Crystal is a mineral BUT o Bounded by simple usually planar surfaces o Surfaces reflect internal arrangement of atoms (quartz?) What controls which minerals/crystals grow and their resulting characteristics? o Composition (What atoms are available?).
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o Environmental Conditions (P, T, fluids). o Internal Structure. (bonding, size of atoms, packing of atoms, charge) Review of Bohr Model of Atoms o Protons +1, Neutrons 0, electrons –1 o Electrons in electron shell o Protons and neutrons in nucleus o Atomic number = number of protons o Atomic weight = protons +neutrons Ions and isotopes o Ions= charged atoms (anions -, cations +) o Isotopes= nuclear species with different # of neutrons but with similar characteristics Distribution of Elements in Earth o Core= Fe, Ni, S & O eg Metals o Mantle= Si, O, Mg, Fe eg olivine o Crust= variable
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